MATLAB – Overview
MATLAB (matrix laboratory) is a fourthgeneration highlevel programming language and interactive environment for numerical computation, visualization and programming.
MATLAB is developed by MathWorks.
It allows matrix manipulations; plotting of functions and data; implementation of algorithms; creation of user interfaces; interfacing with programs written in other languages, including C, C++, Java, and FORTRAN; analyze data; develop algorithms; and create models and applications.
It has numerous builtin commands and math functions that help you in mathematical calculations, generating plots, and performing numerical methods.
MATLAB”s Power of Computational Mathematics
MATLAB is used in every facet of computational mathematics. Following are some commonly used mathematical calculations where it is used most commonly −
 Dealing with Matrices and Arrays
 2D and 3D Plotting and graphics
 Linear Algebra
 Algebraic Equations
 Nonlinear Functions
 Statistics
 Data Analysis
 Calculus and Differential Equations
 Numerical Calculations
 Integration
 Transforms
 Curve Fitting
 Various other special functions
Features of MATLAB
Following are the basic features of MATLAB −

It is a highlevel language for numerical computation, visualization and application development.

It also provides an interactive environment for iterative exploration, design and problem solving.

It provides vast library of mathematical functions for linear algebra, statistics, Fourier analysis, filtering, optimization, numerical integration and solving ordinary differential equations.

It provides builtin graphics for visualizing data and tools for creating custom plots.

MATLAB”s programming interface gives development tools for improving code quality maintainability and maximizing performance.

It provides tools for building applications with custom graphical interfaces.

It provides functions for integrating MATLAB based algorithms with external applications and languages such as C, Java, .NET and Microsoft Excel.
Uses of MATLAB
MATLAB is widely used as a computational tool in science and engineering encompassing the fields of physics, chemistry, math and all engineering streams. It is used in a range of applications including −
 Signal Processing and Communications
 Image and Video Processing
 Control Systems
 Test and Measurement
 Computational Finance
 Computational Biology
MATLAB – Environment Setup
Local Environment Setup
Setting up MATLAB environment is a matter of few clicks. The installer can be downloaded from .
MathWorks provides the licensed product, a trial version and a student version as well. You need to log into the site and wait a little for their approval.
After downloading the installer the software can be installed through few clicks.
Understanding the MATLAB Environment
MATLAB development IDE can be launched from the icon created on the desktop. The main working window in MATLAB is called the desktop. When MATLAB is started, the desktop appears in its default layout −
The desktop has the following panels −

Current Folder − This panel allows you to access the project folders and files.

Command Window − This is the main area where commands can be entered at the command line. It is indicated by the command prompt (>>).

Workspace − The workspace shows all the variables created and/or imported from files.

Command History − This panel shows or return commands that are entered at the command line.
Set up GNU Octave
If you are willing to use Octave on your machine ( Linux, BSD, OS X or Windows ), then kindly download latest version from . You can check the given installation instructions for your machine.
MATLAB – Basic Syntax
MATLAB environment behaves like a supercomplex calculator. You can enter commands at the >> command prompt.
MATLAB is an interpreted environment. In other words, you give a command and MATLAB executes it right away.
Hands on Practice
Type a valid expression, for example,
5 + 5
And press ENTER
When you click the Execute button, or type Ctrl+E, MATLAB executes it immediately and the result returned is −
ans = 10
Let us take up few more examples −
3 ^ 2 % 3 raised to the power of 2
When you click the Execute button, or type Ctrl+E, MATLAB executes it immediately and the result returned is −
ans = 9
Another example,
sin(pi /2) % sine of angle 90^{o}
When you click the Execute button, or type Ctrl+E, MATLAB executes it immediately and the result returned is −
ans = 1
Another example,
7/0 % Divide by zero
When you click the Execute button, or type Ctrl+E, MATLAB executes it immediately and the result returned is −
ans = Inf warning: division by zero
Another example,
732 * 20.3
When you click the Execute button, or type Ctrl+E, MATLAB executes it immediately and the result returned is −
ans = 1.4860e+04
MATLAB provides some special expressions for some mathematical symbols, like pi for π, Inf for ∞, i (and j) for √1 etc. Nan stands for ”not a number”.
Use of Semicolon (;) in MATLAB
Semicolon (;) indicates end of statement. However, if you want to suppress and hide the MATLAB output for an expression, add a semicolon after the expression.
For example,
x = 3; y = x + 5
When you click the Execute button, or type Ctrl+E, MATLAB executes it immediately and the result returned is −
y = 8
Adding Comments
The percent symbol (%) is used for indicating a comment line. For example,
x = 9 % assign the value 9 to x
You can also write a block of comments using the block comment operators % { and % }.
The MATLAB editor includes tools and context menu items to help you add, remove, or change the format of comments.
Commonly used Operators and Special Characters
MATLAB supports the following commonly used operators and special characters −
Operator  Purpose 

+  Plus; addition operator. 
–  Minus; subtraction operator. 
*  Scalar and matrix multiplication operator. 
.*  Array multiplication operator. 
^  Scalar and matrix exponentiation operator. 
.^  Array exponentiation operator. 
Leftdivision operator.  
/  Rightdivision operator. 
.  Array leftdivision operator. 
./  Array rightdivision operator. 
:  Colon; generates regularly spaced elements and represents an entire row or column. 
( )  Parentheses; encloses function arguments and array indices; overrides precedence. 
[ ]  Brackets; enclosures array elements. 
.  Decimal point. 
…  Ellipsis; linecontinuation operator 
,  Comma; separates statements and elements in a row 
;  Semicolon; separates columns and suppresses display. 
%  Percent sign; designates a comment and specifies formatting. 
_  Quote sign and transpose operator. 
._  Nonconjugated transpose operator. 
=  Assignment operator. 
Special Variables and Constants
MATLAB supports the following special variables and constants −
Name  Meaning 

ans  Most recent answer. 
eps  Accuracy of floatingpoint precision. 
i,j  The imaginary unit √1. 
Inf  Infinity. 
NaN  Undefined numerical result (not a number). 
pi  The number π 
Naming Variables
Variable names consist of a letter followed by any number of letters, digits or underscore.
MATLAB is casesensitive.
Variable names can be of any length, however, MATLAB uses only first N characters, where N is given by the function namelengthmax.
Saving Your Work
The save command is used for saving all the variables in the workspace, as a file with .mat extension, in the current directory.
For example,
save myfile
You can reload the file anytime later using the load command.
load myfile
MATLAB – Variables
In MATLAB environment, every variable is an array or matrix.
You can assign variables in a simple way. For example,
x = 3 % defining x and initializing it with a value
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
x = 3
It creates a 1by1 matrix named x and stores the value 3 in its element. Let us check another example,
x = sqrt(16) % defining x and initializing it with an expression
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
x = 4
Please note that −

Once a variable is entered into the system, you can refer to it later.

Variables must have values before they are used.

When an expression returns a result that is not assigned to any variable, the system assigns it to a variable named ans, which can be used later.
For example,
sqrt(78)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 8.8318
You can use this variable ans −
sqrt(78); 9876/ans
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 1118.2
Let”s look at another example −
x = 7 * 8; y = x * 7.89
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
y = 441.84
Multiple Assignments
You can have multiple assignments on the same line. For example,
a = 2; b = 7; c = a * b
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
c = 14
I have forgotten the Variables!
The who command displays all the variable names you have used.
who
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
Your variables are: a ans b c
The whos command displays little more about the variables −
 Variables currently in memory
 Type of each variables
 Memory allocated to each variable
 Whether they are complex variables or not
whos
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
Attr Name Size Bytes Class ==== ==== ==== ==== ===== a 1x1 8 double ans 1x70 757 cell b 1x1 8 double c 1x1 8 double Total is 73 elements using 781 bytes
The clear command deletes all (or the specified) variable(s) from the memory.
clear x % it will delete x, won''t display anything clear % it will delete all variables in the workspace % peacefully and unobtrusively
Long Assignments
Long assignments can be extended to another line by using an ellipses (…). For example,
initial_velocity = 0; acceleration = 9.8; time = 20; final_velocity = initial_velocity + acceleration * time
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
final_velocity = 196
The format Command
By default, MATLAB displays numbers with four decimal place values. This is known as short format.
However, if you want more precision, you need to use the format command.
The format long command displays 16 digits after decimal.
For example −
format long x = 7 + 10/3 + 5 ^ 1.2
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result−
x = 17.2319816406394
Another example,
format short x = 7 + 10/3 + 5 ^ 1.2
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
x = 17.232
The format bank command rounds numbers to two decimal places. For example,
format bank daily_wage = 177.45; weekly_wage = daily_wage * 6
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
weekly_wage = 1064.70
MATLAB displays large numbers using exponential notation.
The format short e command allows displaying in exponential form with four decimal places plus the exponent.
For example,
format short e 4.678 * 4.9
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 2.2922e+01
The format long e command allows displaying in exponential form with four decimal places plus the exponent. For example,
format long e x = pi
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
x = 3.141592653589793e+00
The format rat command gives the closest rational expression resulting from a calculation. For example,
format rat 4.678 * 4.9
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 34177/1491
Creating Vectors
A vector is a onedimensional array of numbers. MATLAB allows creating two types of vectors −
 Row vectors
 Column vectors
Row vectors are created by enclosing the set of elements in square brackets, using space or comma to delimit the elements.
For example,
r = [7 8 9 10 11]
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
r = 7 8 9 10 11
Another example,
r = [7 8 9 10 11]; t = [2, 3, 4, 5, 6]; res = r + t
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
res = 9 11 13 15 17
Column vectors are created by enclosing the set of elements in square brackets, using semicolon(;) to delimit the elements.
c = [7; 8; 9; 10; 11]
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
c = 7 8 9 10 11
Creating Matrices
A matrix is a twodimensional array of numbers.
In MATLAB, a matrix is created by entering each row as a sequence of space or comma separated elements, and end of a row is demarcated by a semicolon. For example, let us create a 3by3 matrix as −
m = [1 2 3; 4 5 6; 7 8 9]
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
m = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
MATLAB – Commands
MATLAB is an interactive program for numerical computation and data visualization. You can enter a command by typing it at the MATLAB prompt ”>>” on the Command Window.
In this section, we will provide lists of commonly used general MATLAB commands.
Commands for Managing a Session
MATLAB provides various commands for managing a session. The following table provides all such commands −
Command  Purpose 

clc  Clears command window. 
clear  Removes variables from memory. 
exist  Checks for existence of file or variable. 
global  Declares variables to be global. 
help  Searches for a help topic. 
lookfor  Searches help entries for a keyword. 
quit  Stops MATLAB. 
who  Lists current variables. 
whos  Lists current variables (long display). 
Commands for Working with the System
MATLAB provides various useful commands for working with the system, like saving the current work in the workspace as a file and loading the file later.
It also provides various commands for other systemrelated activities like, displaying date, listing files in the directory, displaying current directory, etc.
The following table displays some commonly used systemrelated commands −
Command  Purpose 

cd  Changes current directory. 
date  Displays current date. 
delete  Deletes a file. 
diary  Switches on/off diary file recording. 
dir  Lists all files in current directory. 
load  Loads workspace variables from a file. 
path  Displays search path. 
pwd  Displays current directory. 
save  Saves workspace variables in a file. 
type  Displays contents of a file. 
what  Lists all MATLAB files in the current directory. 
wklread  Reads .wk1 spreadsheet file. 
Input and Output Commands
MATLAB provides the following input and output related commands −
Command  Purpose 

disp  Displays contents of an array or string. 
fscanf  Read formatted data from a file. 
format  Controls screendisplay format. 
fprintf  Performs formatted writes to screen or file. 
input  Displays prompts and waits for input. 
;  Suppresses screen printing. 
The fscanf and fprintf commands behave like C scanf and printf functions. They support the following format codes −
Format Code  Purpose 

%s  Format as a string. 
%d  Format as an integer. 
%f  Format as a floating point value. 
%e  Format as a floating point value in scientific notation. 
%g  Format in the most compact form: %f or %e. 
n  Insert a new line in the output string. 
t  Insert a tab in the output string. 
The format function has the following forms used for numeric display −
Format Function  Display up to 

format short  Four decimal digits (default). 
format long  16 decimal digits. 
format short e  Five digits plus exponent. 
format long e  16 digits plus exponents. 
format bank  Two decimal digits. 
format +  Positive, negative, or zero. 
format rat  Rational approximation. 
format compact  Suppresses some line feeds. 
format loose  Resets to less compact display mode. 
Vector, Matrix and Array Commands
The following table shows various commands used for working with arrays, matrices and vectors −
Command  Purpose 

cat  Concatenates arrays. 
find  Finds indices of nonzero elements. 
length  Computes number of elements. 
linspace  Creates regularly spaced vector. 
logspace  Creates logarithmically spaced vector. 
max  Returns largest element. 
min  Returns smallest element. 
prod  Product of each column. 
reshape  Changes size. 
size  Computes array size. 
sort  Sorts each column. 
sum  Sums each column. 
eye  Creates an identity matrix. 
ones  Creates an array of ones. 
zeros  Creates an array of zeros. 
cross  Computes matrix cross products. 
dot  Computes matrix dot products. 
det  Computes determinant of an array. 
inv  Computes inverse of a matrix. 
pinv  Computes pseudoinverse of a matrix. 
rank  Computes rank of a matrix. 
rref  Computes reduced row echelon form. 
cell  Creates cell array. 
celldisp  Displays cell array. 
cellplot  Displays graphical representation of cell array. 
num2cell  Converts numeric array to cell array. 
deal  Matches input and output lists. 
iscell  Identifies cell array. 
Plotting Commands
MATLAB provides numerous commands for plotting graphs. The following table shows some of the commonly used commands for plotting −
Command  Purpose 

axis  Sets axis limits. 
fplot  Intelligent plotting of functions. 
grid  Displays gridlines. 
plot  Generates xy plot. 
Prints plot or saves plot to a file.  
title  Puts text at top of plot. 
xlabel  Adds text label to xaxis. 
ylabel  Adds text label to yaxis. 
axes  Creates axes objects. 
close  Closes the current plot. 
close all  Closes all plots. 
figure  Opens a new figure window. 
gtext  Enables label placement by mouse. 
hold  Freezes current plot. 
legend  Legend placement by mouse. 
refresh  Redraws current figure window. 
set  Specifies properties of objects such as axes. 
subplot  Creates plots in subwindows. 
text  Places string in figure. 
bar  Creates bar chart. 
loglog  Creates loglog plot. 
polar  Creates polar plot. 
semilogx  Creates semilog plot. (logarithmic abscissa). 
semilogy  Creates semilog plot. (logarithmic ordinate). 
stairs  Creates stairs plot. 
stem  Creates stem plot. 
MATLAB – MFiles
So far, we have used MATLAB environment as a calculator. However, MATLAB is also a powerful programming language, as well as an interactive computational environment.
In previous chapters, you have learned how to enter commands from the MATLAB command prompt. MATLAB also allows you to write series of commands into a file and execute the file as complete unit, like writing a function and calling it.
The M Files
MATLAB allows writing two kinds of program files −

Scripts − script files are program files with .m extension. In these files, you write series of commands, which you want to execute together. Scripts do not accept inputs and do not return any outputs. They operate on data in the workspace.

Functions − functions files are also program files with .m extension. Functions can accept inputs and return outputs. Internal variables are local to the function.
You can use the MATLAB editor or any other text editor to create your .mfiles. In this section, we will discuss the script files. A script file contains multiple sequential lines of MATLAB commands and function calls. You can run a script by typing its name at the command line.
Creating and Running Script File
To create scripts files, you need to use a text editor. You can open the MATLAB editor in two ways −
 Using the command prompt
 Using the IDE
If you are using the command prompt, type edit in the command prompt. This will open the editor. You can directly type edit and then the filename (with .m extension)
edit Or edit <filename>
The above command will create the file in default MATLAB directory. If you want to store all program files in a specific folder, then you will have to provide the entire path.
Let us create a folder named progs. Type the following commands at the command prompt (>>) −
mkdir progs % create directory progs under default directory chdir progs % changing the current directory to progs edit prog1.m % creating an m file named prog1.m
If you are creating the file for first time, MATLAB prompts you to confirm it. Click Yes.
Alternatively, if you are using the IDE, choose NEW > Script. This also opens the editor and creates a file named Untitled. You can name and save the file after typing the code.
Type the following code in the editor −
NoOfStudents = 6000; TeachingStaff = 150; NonTeachingStaff = 20; Total = NoOfStudents + TeachingStaff ... + NonTeachingStaff; disp(Total);
After creating and saving the file, you can run it in two ways −

Clicking the Run button on the editor window or

Just typing the filename (without extension) in the command prompt: >> prog1
The command window prompt displays the result −
6170
Example
Create a script file, and type the following code −
a = 5; b = 7; c = a + b d = c + sin(b) e = 5 * d f = exp(d)
When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −
c = 12 d = 12.657 e = 63.285 f = 3.1852e06
MATLAB – Data Types
MATLAB does not require any type declaration or dimension statements. Whenever MATLAB encounters a new variable name, it creates the variable and allocates appropriate memory space.
If the variable already exists, then MATLAB replaces the original content with new content and allocates new storage space, where necessary.
For example,
Total = 42
The above statement creates a 1by1 matrix named ”Total” and stores the value 42 in it.
Data Types Available in MATLAB
MATLAB provides 15 fundamental data types. Every data type stores data that is in the form of a matrix or array. The size of this matrix or array is a minimum of 0by0 and this can grow up to a matrix or array of any size.
The following table shows the most commonly used data types in MATLAB −
Sr.No.  Data Type & Description 

1 
int8 8bit signed integer 
2 
uint8 8bit unsigned integer 
3 
int16 16bit signed integer 
4 
uint16 16bit unsigned integer 
5 
int32 32bit signed integer 
6 
uint32 32bit unsigned integer 
7 
int64 64bit signed integer 
8 
uint64 64bit unsigned integer 
9 
single single precision numerical data 
10 
double double precision numerical data 
11 
logical logical values of 1 or 0, represent true and false respectively 
12 
char character data (strings are stored as vector of characters) 
13 
cell array array of indexed cells, each capable of storing an array of a different dimension and data type 
14 
structure Clike structures, each structure having named fields capable of storing an array of a different dimension and data type 
15 
function handle pointer to a function 
16 
user classes objects constructed from a userdefined class 
17 
java classes objects constructed from a Java class 
Example
Create a script file with the following code −
str = ''Hello World!'' n = 2345 d = double(n) un = uint32(789.50) rn = 5678.92347 c = int32(rn)
When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −
str = Hello World! n = 2345 d = 2345 un = 790 rn = 5678.9 c = 5679
Data Type Conversion
MATLAB provides various functions for converting, a value from one data type to another. The following table shows the data type conversion functions −
Function  Purpose 

char  Convert to character array (string) 
int2str  Convert integer data to string 
mat2str  Convert matrix to string 
num2str  Convert number to string 
str2double  Convert string to doubleprecision value 
str2num  Convert string to number 
native2unicode  Convert numeric bytes to Unicode characters 
unicode2native  Convert Unicode characters to numeric bytes 
base2dec  Convert base N number string to decimal number 
bin2dec  Convert binary number string to decimal number 
dec2base  Convert decimal to base N number in string 
dec2bin  Convert decimal to binary number in string 
dec2hex  Convert decimal to hexadecimal number in string 
hex2dec  Convert hexadecimal number string to decimal number 
hex2num  Convert hexadecimal number string to doubleprecision number 
num2hex  Convert singles and doubles to IEEE hexadecimal strings 
cell2mat  Convert cell array to numeric array 
cell2struct  Convert cell array to structure array 
cellstr  Create cell array of strings from character array 
mat2cell  Convert array to cell array with potentially different sized cells 
num2cell  Convert array to cell array with consistently sized cells 
struct2cell  Convert structure to cell array 
Determination of Data Types
MATLAB provides various functions for identifying data type of a variable.
Following table provides the functions for determining the data type of a variable −
Function  Purpose 

is  Detect state 
isa  Determine if input is object of specified class 
iscell  Determine whether input is cell array 
iscellstr  Determine whether input is cell array of strings 
ischar  Determine whether item is character array 
isfield  Determine whether input is structure array field 
isfloat  Determine if input is floatingpoint array 
ishghandle  True for Handle Graphics object handles 
isinteger  Determine if input is integer array 
isjava  Determine if input is Java object 
islogical  Determine if input is logical array 
isnumeric  Determine if input is numeric array 
isobject  Determine if input is MATLAB object 
isreal  Check if input is real array 
isscalar  Determine whether input is scalar 
isstr  Determine whether input is character array 
isstruct  Determine whether input is structure array 
isvector  Determine whether input is vector 
class  Determine class of object 
validateattributes  Check validity of array 
whos  List variables in workspace, with sizes and types 
Example
Create a script file with the following code −
x = 3 isinteger(x) isfloat(x) isvector(x) isscalar(x) isnumeric(x) x = 23.54 isinteger(x) isfloat(x) isvector(x) isscalar(x) isnumeric(x) x = [1 2 3] isinteger(x) isfloat(x) isvector(x) isscalar(x) x = ''Hello'' isinteger(x) isfloat(x) isvector(x) isscalar(x) isnumeric(x)
When you run the file, it produces the following result −
x = 3 ans = 0 ans = 1 ans = 1 ans = 1 ans = 1 x = 23.540 ans = 0 ans = 1 ans = 1 ans = 1 ans = 1 x = 1 2 3 ans = 0 ans = 1 ans = 1 ans = 0 x = Hello ans = 0 ans = 0 ans = 1 ans = 0 ans = 0
MATLAB – Operators
An operator is a symbol that tells the compiler to perform specific mathematical or logical manipulations. MATLAB is designed to operate primarily on whole matrices and arrays. Therefore, operators in MATLAB work both on scalar and nonscalar data. MATLAB allows the following types of elementary operations −
 Arithmetic Operators
 Relational Operators
 Logical Operators
 Bitwise Operations
 Set Operations
Arithmetic Operators
MATLAB allows two different types of arithmetic operations −
 Matrix arithmetic operations
 Array arithmetic operations
Matrix arithmetic operations are same as defined in linear algebra. Array operations are executed element by element, both on onedimensional and multidimensional array.
The matrix operators and array operators are differentiated by the period (.) symbol. However, as the addition and subtraction operation is same for matrices and arrays, the operator is same for both cases. The following table gives brief description of the operators −
Sr.No.  Operator & Description 

1 
+ Addition or unary plus. A+B adds the values stored in variables A and B. A and B must have the same size, unless one is a scalar. A scalar can be added to a matrix of any size. 
2 
– Subtraction or unary minus. AB subtracts the value of B from A. A and B must have the same size, unless one is a scalar. A scalar can be subtracted from a matrix of any size. 
3 
* Matrix multiplication. C = A*B is the linear algebraic product of the matrices A and B. More precisely, For nonscalar A and B, the number of columns of A must be equal to the number of rows of B. A scalar can multiply a matrix of any size. 
4 
.* Array multiplication. A.*B is the elementbyelement product of the arrays A and B. A and B must have the same size, unless one of them is a scalar. 
5 
/ Slash or matrix right division. B/A is roughly the same as B*inv(A). More precisely, B/A = (A”B”)”. 
6 
./ Array right division. A./B is the matrix with elements A(i,j)/B(i,j). A and B must have the same size, unless one of them is a scalar. 
7 
Backslash or matrix left division. If A is a square matrix, AB is roughly the same as inv(A)*B, except it is computed in a different way. If A is an nbyn matrix and B is a column vector with n components, or a matrix with several such columns, then X = AB is the solution to the equation AX = B. A warning message is displayed if A is badly scaled or nearly singular. 
8 
. Array left division. A.B is the matrix with elements B(i,j)/A(i,j). A and B must have the same size, unless one of them is a scalar. 
9 
^ Matrix power. X^p is X to the power p, if p is a scalar. If p is an integer, the power is computed by repeated squaring. If the integer is negative, X is inverted first. For other values of p, the calculation involves eigenvalues and eigenvectors, such that if [V,D] = eig(X), then X^p = V*D.^p/V. 
10 
.^ Array power. A.^B is the matrix with elements A(i,j) to the B(i,j) power. A and B must have the same size, unless one of them is a scalar. 
11 
” Matrix transpose. A” is the linear algebraic transpose of A. For complex matrices, this is the complex conjugate transpose. 
12 
.” Array transpose. A.” is the array transpose of A. For complex matrices, this does not involve conjugation. 
Relational Operators
Relational operators can also work on both scalar and nonscalar data. Relational operators for arrays perform elementbyelement comparisons between two arrays and return a logical array of the same size, with elements set to logical 1 (true) where the relation is true and elements set to logical 0 (false) where it is not.
The following table shows the relational operators available in MATLAB −
Sr.No.  Operator & Description 

1 
< Less than 
2 
<= Less than or equal to 
3 
> Greater than 
4 
>= Greater than or equal to 
5 
== Equal to 
6 
~= Not equal to 
Logical Operators
MATLAB offers two types of logical operators and functions −

Elementwise − These operators operate on corresponding elements of logical arrays.

Shortcircuit − These operators operate on scalar and, logical expressions.
Elementwise logical operators operate elementbyelement on logical arrays. The symbols &, , and ~ are the logical array operators AND, OR, and NOT.
Shortcircuit logical operators allow shortcircuiting on logical operations. The symbols && and  are the logical shortcircuit operators AND and OR.
Bitwise Operations
Bitwise operators work on bits and perform bitbybit operation. The truth tables for &, , and ^ are as follows −
p  q  p & q  p  q  p ^ q 

0  0  0  0  0 
0  1  0  1  1 
1  1  1  1  0 
1  0  0  1  1 
Assume if A = 60; and B = 13; Now in binary format they will be as follows −
A = 0011 1100
B = 0000 1101
—————–
A&B = 0000 1100
AB = 0011 1101
A^B = 0011 0001
~A = 1100 0011
MATLAB provides various functions for bitwise operations like ”bitwise and”, ”bitwise or” and ”bitwise not” operations, shift operation, etc.
The following table shows the commonly used bitwise operations −
Function  Purpose 

bitand(a, b)  Bitwise AND of integers a and b 
bitcmp(a)  Bitwise complement of a 
bitget(a,pos)  Get bit at specified position pos, in the integer array a 
bitor(a, b)  Bitwise OR of integers a and b 
bitset(a, pos)  Set bit at specific location pos of a 
bitshift(a, k)  Returns a shifted to the left by k bits, equivalent to multiplying by 2^{k}. Negative values of k correspond to shifting bits right or dividing by 2^{k} and rounding to the nearest integer towards negative infinite. Any overflow bits are truncated. 
bitxor(a, b)  Bitwise XOR of integers a and b 
swapbytes  Swap byte ordering 
Set Operations
MATLAB provides various functions for set operations, like union, intersection and testing for set membership, etc.
The following table shows some commonly used set operations −
Sr.No.  Function & Description 

1 
intersect(A,B) Set intersection of two arrays; returns the values common to both A and B. The values returned are in sorted order. 
2 
intersect(A,B,”rows”) Treats each row of A and each row of B as single entities and returns the rows common to both A and B. The rows of the returned matrix are in sorted order. 
3 
ismember(A,B) Returns an array the same size as A, containing 1 (true) where the elements of A are found in B. Elsewhere, it returns 0 (false). 
4 
ismember(A,B,”rows”) Treats each row of A and each row of B as single entities and returns a vector containing 1 (true) where the rows of matrix A are also rows of B. Elsewhere, it returns 0 (false). 
5 
issorted(A) Returns logical 1 (true) if the elements of A are in sorted order and logical 0 (false) otherwise. Input A can be a vector or an Nby1 or 1byN cell array of strings. A is considered to be sorted if A and the output of sort(A) are equal. 
6 
issorted(A, ”rows”) Returns logical 1 (true) if the rows of twodimensional matrix A is in sorted order, and logical 0 (false) otherwise. Matrix A is considered to be sorted if A and the output of sortrows(A) are equal. 
7 
setdiff(A,B) Sets difference of two arrays; returns the values in A that are not in B. The values in the returned array are in sorted order. 
8 
setdiff(A,B,”rows”) Treats each row of A and each row of B as single entities and returns the rows from A that are not in B. The rows of the returned matrix are in sorted order. The ”rows” option does not support cell arrays. 
9 
setxor Sets exclusive OR of two arrays 
10 
union Sets union of two arrays 
11 
unique Unique values in array 
MATLAB – Decision Making
Decision making structures require that the programmer should specify one or more conditions to be evaluated or tested by the program, along with a statement or statements to be executed if the condition is determined to be true, and optionally, other statements to be executed if the condition is determined to be false.
Following is the general form of a typical decision making structure found in most of the programming languages −
MATLAB provides following types of decision making statements. Click the following links to check their detail −
Sr.No.  Statement & Description 

1 
An if … end statement consists of a boolean expression followed by one or more statements. 
2 
An if statement can be followed by an optional else statement, which executes when the boolean expression is false. 
3 
An if statement can be followed by one (or more) optional elseif… and an else statement, which is very useful to test various conditions. 
4 
You can use one if or elseif statement inside another if or elseif statement(s). 
5 
A switch statement allows a variable to be tested for equality against a list of values. 
6 
You can use one switch statement inside another switch statement(s). 
MATLAB – Loop Types
There may be a situation when you need to execute a block of code several number of times. In general, statements are executed sequentially. The first statement in a function is executed first, followed by the second, and so on.
Programming languages provide various control structures that allow for more complicated execution paths.
A loop statement allows us to execute a statement or group of statements multiple times and following is the general form of a loop statement in most of the programming languages −
MATLAB provides following types of loops to handle looping requirements. Click the following links to check their detail −
Sr.No.  Loop Type & Description 

1 
Repeats a statement or group of statements while a given condition is true. It tests the condition before executing the loop body. 
2 
Executes a sequence of statements multiple times and abbreviates the code that manages the loop variable. 
3 
You can use one or more loops inside any another loop. 
Loop Control Statements
Loop control statements change execution from its normal sequence. When execution leaves a scope, all automatic objects that were created in that scope are destroyed.
MATLAB supports the following control statements. Click the following links to check their detail.
Sr.No.  Control Statement & Description 

1 
Terminates the loop statement and transfers execution to the statement immediately following the loop. 
2 
Causes the loop to skip the remainder of its body and immediately retest its condition prior to reiterating. 
MATLAB – Vectors
A vector is a onedimensional array of numbers. MATLAB allows creating two types of vectors −
 Row vectors
 Column vectors
Row Vectors
Row vectors are created by enclosing the set of elements in square brackets, using space or comma to delimit the elements.
r = [7 8 9 10 11]
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
r = 7 8 9 10 11
Column Vectors
Column vectors are created by enclosing the set of elements in square brackets, using semicolon to delimit the elements.
c = [7; 8; 9; 10; 11]
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
c = 7 8 9 10 11
Referencing the Elements of a Vector
You can reference one or more of the elements of a vector in several ways. The i^{th} component of a vector v is referred as v(i). For example −
v = [ 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6]; % creating a column vector of 6 elements v(3)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 3
When you reference a vector with a colon, such as v(:), all the components of the vector are listed.
v = [ 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 6]; % creating a column vector of 6 elements v(:)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 1 2 3 4 5 6
MATLAB allows you to select a range of elements from a vector.
For example, let us create a row vector rv of 9 elements, then we will reference the elements 3 to 7 by writing rv(3:7) and create a new vector named sub_rv.
rv = [1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9]; sub_rv = rv(3:7)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
sub_rv = 3 4 5 6 7
Vector Operations
In this section, let us discuss the following vector operations −
MATLAB – Matrix
A matrix is a twodimensional array of numbers.
In MATLAB, you create a matrix by entering elements in each row as comma or space delimited numbers and using semicolons to mark the end of each row.
For example, let us create a 4by5 matrix a −
a = [ 1 2 3 4 5; 2 3 4 5 6; 3 4 5 6 7; 4 5 6 7 8]
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
a = 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 6 3 4 5 6 7 4 5 6 7 8
Referencing the Elements of a Matrix
To reference an element in the m^{th} row and n^{th} column, of a matrix mx, we write −
mx(m, n);
For example, to refer to the element in the 2^{nd} row and 5^{th} column, of the matrix a, as created in the last section, we type −
a = [ 1 2 3 4 5; 2 3 4 5 6; 3 4 5 6 7; 4 5 6 7 8]; a(2,5)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 6
To reference all the elements in the m^{th} column we type A(:,m).
Let us create a column vector v, from the elements of the 4^{th} row of the matrix a −
a = [ 1 2 3 4 5; 2 3 4 5 6; 3 4 5 6 7; 4 5 6 7 8]; v = a(:,4)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
v = 4 5 6 7
You can also select the elements in the m^{th} through n^{th} columns, for this we write −
a(:,m:n)
Let us create a smaller matrix taking the elements from the second and third columns −
a = [ 1 2 3 4 5; 2 3 4 5 6; 3 4 5 6 7; 4 5 6 7 8]; a(:, 2:3)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6
In the same way, you can create a submatrix taking a subpart of a matrix.
a = [ 1 2 3 4 5; 2 3 4 5 6; 3 4 5 6 7; 4 5 6 7 8]; a(:, 2:3)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 2 3 3 4 4 5 5 6
In the same way, you can create a submatrix taking a subpart of a matrix.
For example, let us create a submatrix sa taking the inner subpart of a −
3 4 5 4 5 6
To do this, write −
a = [ 1 2 3 4 5; 2 3 4 5 6; 3 4 5 6 7; 4 5 6 7 8]; sa = a(2:3,2:4)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
sa = 3 4 5 4 5 6
Deleting a Row or a Column in a Matrix
You can delete an entire row or column of a matrix by assigning an empty set of square braces [] to that row or column. Basically, [] denotes an empty array.
For example, let us delete the fourth row of a −
a = [ 1 2 3 4 5; 2 3 4 5 6; 3 4 5 6 7; 4 5 6 7 8]; a( 4 , : ) = []
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
a = 1 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 6 3 4 5 6 7
Next, let us delete the fifth column of a −
a = [ 1 2 3 4 5; 2 3 4 5 6; 3 4 5 6 7; 4 5 6 7 8]; a(: , 5)=[]
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
a = 1 2 3 4 2 3 4 5 3 4 5 6 4 5 6 7
Example
In this example, let us create a 3by3 matrix m, then we will copy the second and third rows of this matrix twice to create a 4by3 matrix.
Create a script file with the following code −
a = [ 1 2 3 ; 4 5 6; 7 8 9]; new_mat = a([2,3,2,3],:)
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
new_mat = 4 5 6 7 8 9 4 5 6 7 8 9
Matrix Operations
In this section, let us discuss the following basic and commonly used matrix operations −
MATLAB – Arrays
All variables of all data types in MATLAB are multidimensional arrays. A vector is a onedimensional array and a matrix is a twodimensional array.
We have already discussed vectors and matrices. In this chapter, we will discuss multidimensional arrays. However, before that, let us discuss some special types of arrays.
Special Arrays in MATLAB
In this section, we will discuss some functions that create some special arrays. For all these functions, a single argument creates a square array, double arguments create rectangular array.
The zeros() function creates an array of all zeros −
For example −
zeros(5)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
The ones() function creates an array of all ones −
For example −
ones(4,3)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
The eye() function creates an identity matrix.
For example −
eye(4)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
The rand() function creates an array of uniformly distributed random numbers on (0,1) −
For example −
rand(3, 5)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 0.8147 0.9134 0.2785 0.9649 0.9572 0.9058 0.6324 0.5469 0.1576 0.4854 0.1270 0.0975 0.9575 0.9706 0.8003
A Magic Square
A magic square is a square that produces the same sum, when its elements are added rowwise, columnwise or diagonally.
The magic() function creates a magic square array. It takes a singular argument that gives the size of the square. The argument must be a scalar greater than or equal to 3.
magic(4)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 16 2 3 13 5 11 10 8 9 7 6 12 4 14 15 1
Multidimensional Arrays
An array having more than two dimensions is called a multidimensional array in MATLAB. Multidimensional arrays in MATLAB are an extension of the normal twodimensional matrix.
Generally to generate a multidimensional array, we first create a twodimensional array and extend it.
For example, let”s create a twodimensional array a.
a = [7 9 5; 6 1 9; 4 3 2]
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
a = 7 9 5 6 1 9 4 3 2
The array a is a 3by3 array; we can add a third dimension to a, by providing the values like −
a(:, :, 2)= [ 1 2 3; 4 5 6; 7 8 9]
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
a = ans(:,:,1) = 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ans(:,:,2) = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
We can also create multidimensional arrays using the ones(), zeros() or the rand() functions.
For example,
b = rand(4,3,2)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
b(:,:,1) = 0.0344 0.7952 0.6463 0.4387 0.1869 0.7094 0.3816 0.4898 0.7547 0.7655 0.4456 0.2760 b(:,:,2) = 0.6797 0.4984 0.2238 0.6551 0.9597 0.7513 0.1626 0.3404 0.2551 0.1190 0.5853 0.5060
We can also use the cat() function to build multidimensional arrays. It concatenates a list of arrays along a specified dimension −
Syntax for the cat() function is −
B = cat(dim, A1, A2...)
Where,

B is the new array created

A1, A2, … are the arrays to be concatenated

dim is the dimension along which to concatenate the arrays
Example
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
a = [9 8 7; 6 5 4; 3 2 1]; b = [1 2 3; 4 5 6; 7 8 9]; c = cat(3, a, b, [ 2 3 1; 4 7 8; 3 9 0])
When you run the file, it displays −
c(:,:,1) = 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 c(:,:,2) = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 c(:,:,3) = 2 3 1 4 7 8 3 9 0
Array Functions
MATLAB provides the following functions to sort, rotate, permute, reshape, or shift array contents.
Function  Purpose 

length  Length of vector or largest array dimension 
ndims  Number of array dimensions 
numel  Number of array elements 
size  Array dimensions 
iscolumn  Determines whether input is column vector 
isempty  Determines whether array is empty 
ismatrix  Determines whether input is matrix 
isrow  Determines whether input is row vector 
isscalar  Determines whether input is scalar 
isvector  Determines whether input is vector 
blkdiag  Constructs block diagonal matrix from input arguments 
circshift  Shifts array circularly 
ctranspose  Complex conjugate transpose 
diag  Diagonal matrices and diagonals of matrix 
flipdim  Flips array along specified dimension 
fliplr  Flips matrix from left to right 
flipud  Flips matrix up to down 
ipermute  Inverses permute dimensions of ND array 
permute  Rearranges dimensions of ND array 
repmat  Replicates and tile array 
reshape  Reshapes array 
rot90  Rotates matrix 90 degrees 
shiftdim  Shifts dimensions 
issorted  Determines whether set elements are in sorted order 
sort  Sorts array elements in ascending or descending order 
sortrows  Sorts rows in ascending order 
squeeze  Removes singleton dimensions 
transpose  Transpose 
vectorize  Vectorizes expression 
Examples
The following examples illustrate some of the functions mentioned above.
Length, Dimension and Number of elements −
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
x = [7.1, 3.4, 7.2, 28/4, 3.6, 17, 9.4, 8.9]; length(x) % length of x vector y = rand(3, 4, 5, 2); ndims(y) % no of dimensions in array y s = [''Zara'', ''Nuha'', ''Shamim'', ''Riz'', ''Shadab'']; numel(s) % no of elements in s
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
ans = 8 ans = 4 ans = 23
Circular Shifting of the Array Elements −
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
a = [1 2 3; 4 5 6; 7 8 9] % the original array a b = circshift(a,1) % circular shift first dimension values down by 1. c = circshift(a,[1 1]) % circular shift first dimension values % down by 1 % and second dimension values to the left % by 1.
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
a = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 b = 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 5 6 c = 8 9 7 2 3 1 5 6 4
Sorting Arrays
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
v = [ 23 45 12 9 5 0 19 17] % horizontal vector sort(v) % sorting v m = [2 6 4; 5 3 9; 2 0 1] % two dimensional array sort(m, 1) % sorting m along the row sort(m, 2) % sorting m along the column
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
v = 23 45 12 9 5 0 19 17 ans = 0 5 9 12 17 19 23 45 m = 2 6 4 5 3 9 2 0 1 ans = 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 9 ans = 2 4 6 3 5 9 0 1 2
Cell Array
Cell arrays are arrays of indexed cells where each cell can store an array of a different dimensions and data types.
The cell function is used for creating a cell array. Syntax for the cell function is −
C = cell(dim) C = cell(dim1,...,dimN) D = cell(obj)
Where,

C is the cell array;

dim is a scalar integer or vector of integers that specifies the dimensions of cell array C;

dim1, … , dimN are scalar integers that specify the dimensions of C;

obj is One of the following −
 Java array or object
 .NET array of type System.String or System.Object
Example
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
c = cell(2, 5); c = {''Red'', ''Blue'', ''Green'', ''Yellow'', ''White 1 2 3 4 5}
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
c = { [1,1] = Red [2,1] = 1 [1,2] = Blue [2,2] = 2 [1,3] = Green [2,3] = 3 [1,4] = Yellow [2,4] = 4 [1,5] = White [2,5] = 5 }
Accessing Data in Cell Arrays
There are two ways to refer to the elements of a cell array −
 Enclosing the indices in first bracket (), to refer to sets of cells
 Enclosing the indices in braces {}, to refer to the data within individual cells
When you enclose the indices in first bracket, it refers to the set of cells.
Cell array indices in smooth parentheses refer to sets of cells.
For example −
c = {''Red'', ''Blue'', ''Green'', ''Yellow'', ''White 1 2 3 4 5}; c(1:2,1:2)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = { [1,1] = Red [2,1] = 1 [1,2] = Blue [2,2] = 2 }
You can also access the contents of cells by indexing with curly braces.
For example −
c = {''Red'', ''Blue'', ''Green'', ''Yellow'', ''White 1 2 3 4 5}; c{1, 2:4}
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = Blue ans = Green ans = Yellow
MATLAB – Colon Notation
The colon(:) is one of the most useful operator in MATLAB. It is used to create vectors, subscript arrays, and specify for iterations.
If you want to create a row vector, containing integers from 1 to 10, you write −
1:10
MATLAB executes the statement and returns a row vector containing the integers from 1 to 10 −
ans = 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
If you want to specify an increment value other than one, for example −
100: 5: 50
MATLAB executes the statement and returns the following result −
ans = 100 95 90 85 80 75 70 65 60 55 50
Let us take another example −
0:pi/8:pi
MATLAB executes the statement and returns the following result −
ans = Columns 1 through 7 0 0.3927 0.7854 1.1781 1.5708 1.9635 2.3562 Columns 8 through 9 2.7489 3.1416
You can use the colon operator to create a vector of indices to select rows, columns or elements of arrays.
The following table describes its use for this purpose (let us have a matrix A) −
Format  Purpose 

A(:,j)  is the jth column of A. 
A(i,:)  is the ith row of A. 
A(:,:)  is the equivalent twodimensional array. For matrices this is the same as A. 
A(j:k)  is A(j), A(j+1),…,A(k). 
A(:,j:k)  is A(:,j), A(:,j+1),…,A(:,k). 
A(:,:,k)  is the k^{th} page of threedimensional array A. 
A(i,j,k,:)  is a vector in fourdimensional array A. The vector includes A(i,j,k,1), A(i,j,k,2), A(i,j,k,3), and so on. 
A(:)  is all the elements of A, regarded as a single column. On the left side of an assignment statement, A(:) fills A, preserving its shape from before. In this case, the right side must contain the same number of elements as A. 
Example
Create a script file and type the following code in it −
A = [1 2 3 4; 4 5 6 7; 7 8 9 10] A(:,2) % second column of A A(:,2:3) % second and third column of A A(2:3,2:3) % second and third rows and second and third columns
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
A = 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 10 ans = 2 5 8 ans = 2 3 5 6 8 9 ans = 5 6 8 9
MATLAB – Numbers
MATLAB supports various numeric classes that include signed and unsigned integers and singleprecision and doubleprecision floatingpoint numbers. By default, MATLAB stores all numeric values as doubleprecision floating point numbers.
You can choose to store any number or array of numbers as integers or as singleprecision numbers.
All numeric types support basic array operations and mathematical operations.
Conversion to Various Numeric Data Types
MATLAB provides the following functions to convert to various numeric data types −
Function  Purpose 

double  Converts to double precision number 
single  Converts to single precision number 
int8  Converts to 8bit signed integer 
int16  Converts to 16bit signed integer 
int32  Converts to 32bit signed integer 
int64  Converts to 64bit signed integer 
uint8  Converts to 8bit unsigned integer 
uint16  Converts to 16bit unsigned integer 
uint32  Converts to 32bit unsigned integer 
uint64  Converts to 64bit unsigned integer 
Example
Create a script file and type the following code −
x = single([5.32 3.47 6.28]) .* 7.5 x = double([5.32 3.47 6.28]) .* 7.5 x = int8([5.32 3.47 6.28]) .* 7.5 x = int16([5.32 3.47 6.28]) .* 7.5 x = int32([5.32 3.47 6.28]) .* 7.5 x = int64([5.32 3.47 6.28]) .* 7.5
When you run the file, it shows the following result −
x = 39.900 26.025 47.100 x = 39.900 26.025 47.100 x = 38 23 45 x = 38 23 45 x = 38 23 45 x = 38 23 45
Example
Let us extend the previous example a little more. Create a script file and type the following code −
x = int32([5.32 3.47 6.28]) .* 7.5 x = int64([5.32 3.47 6.28]) .* 7.5 x = num2cell(x)
When you run the file, it shows the following result −
x = 38 23 45 x = 38 23 45 x = { [1,1] = 38 [1,2] = 23 [1,3] = 45 }
Smallest and Largest Integers
The functions intmax() and intmin() return the maximum and minimum values that can be represented with all types of integer numbers.
Both the functions take the integer data type as the argument, for example, intmax(int8) or intmin(int64) and return the maximum and minimum values that you can represent with the integer data type.
Example
The following example illustrates how to obtain the smallest and largest values of integers. Create a script file and write the following code in it −
% displaying the smallest and largest signed integer data str = ''The range for int8 is:nt%d to %d sprintf(str, intmin(''int8''), intmax(''int8'')) str = ''The range for int16 is:nt%d to %d sprintf(str, intmin(''int16''), intmax(''int16'')) str = ''The range for int32 is:nt%d to %d sprintf(str, intmin(''int32''), intmax(''int32'')) str = ''The range for int64 is:nt%d to %d sprintf(str, intmin(''int64''), intmax(''int64'')) % displaying the smallest and largest unsigned integer data str = ''The range for uint8 is:nt%d to %d sprintf(str, intmin(''uint8''), intmax(''uint8'')) str = ''The range for uint16 is:nt%d to %d sprintf(str, intmin(''uint16''), intmax(''uint16'')) str = ''The range for uint32 is:nt%d to %d sprintf(str, intmin(''uint32''), intmax(''uint32'')) str = ''The range for uint64 is:nt%d to %d sprintf(str, intmin(''uint64''), intmax(''uint64''))
When you run the file, it shows the following result −
ans = The range for int8 is: 128 to 127 ans = The range for int16 is: 32768 to 32767 ans = The range for int32 is: 2147483648 to 2147483647 ans = The range for int64 is: 0 to 0 ans = The range for uint8 is: 0 to 255 ans = The range for uint16 is: 0 to 65535 ans = The range for uint32 is: 0 to 1 ans = The range for uint64 is: 0 to 18446744073709551616
Smallest and Largest Floating Point Numbers
The functions realmax() and realmin() return the maximum and minimum values that can be represented with floating point numbers.
Both the functions when called with the argument ”single”, return the maximum and minimum values that you can represent with the singleprecision data type and when called with the argument ”double”, return the maximum and minimum values that you can represent with the doubleprecision data type.
Example
The following example illustrates how to obtain the smallest and largest floating point numbers. Create a script file and write the following code in it −
% displaying the smallest and largest singleprecision % floating point number str = ''The range for single is:nt%g to %g andnt %g to %g sprintf(str, realmax(''single''), realmin(''single''), ... realmin(''single''), realmax(''single'')) % displaying the smallest and largest doubleprecision % floating point number str = ''The range for double is:nt%g to %g andnt %g to %g sprintf(str, realmax(''double''), realmin(''double''), ... realmin(''double''), realmax(''double''))
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
ans = The range for single is: 3.40282e+38 to 1.17549e38 and 1.17549e38 to 3.40282e+38 ans = The range for double is: 1.79769e+308 to 2.22507e308 and 2.22507e308 to 1.79769e+308
MATLAB – Strings
Creating a character string is quite simple in MATLAB. In fact, we have used it many times. For example, you type the following in the command prompt −
my_string = ''Tutorials Point''
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
my_string = Tutorials Point
MATLAB considers all variables as arrays, and strings are considered as character arrays. Let us use the whos command to check the variable created above −
whos
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
Name Size Bytes Class Attributes my_string 1x16 32 char
Interestingly, you can use numeric conversion functions like uint8 or uint16 to convert the characters in the string to their numeric codes. The char function converts the integer vector back to characters −
Example
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
my_string = ''Tutorial''''s Point str_ascii = uint8(my_string) % 8bit ascii values str_back_to_char= char(str_ascii) str_16bit = uint16(my_string) % 16bit ascii values str_back_to_char = char(str_16bit)
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
str_ascii = 84 117 116 111 114 105 97 108 39 115 32 80 111 105 110 116 str_back_to_char = Tutorial''s Point str_16bit = 84 117 116 111 114 105 97 108 39 115 32 80 111 105 110 116 str_back_to_char = Tutorial''s Point
Rectangular Character Array
The strings we have discussed so far are onedimensional character arrays; however, we need to store more than that. We need to store more dimensional textual data in our program. This is achieved by creating rectangular character arrays.
Simplest way of creating a rectangular character array is by concatenating two or more onedimensional character arrays, either vertically or horizontally as required.
You can combine strings vertically in either of the following ways −

Using the MATLAB concatenation operator [] and separating each row with a semicolon (;). Please note that in this method each row must contain the same number of characters. For strings with different lengths, you should pad with space characters as needed.

Using the char function. If the strings are of different lengths, char pads the shorter strings with trailing blanks so that each row has the same number of characters.
Example
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
doc_profile = [''Zara Ali ... ''Sr. Surgeon ... ''R N Tagore Cardiology Research Center''] doc_profile = char(''Zara Ali'', ''Sr. Surgeon'', ... ''RN Tagore Cardiology Research Center'')
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
doc_profile = Zara Ali Sr. Surgeon R N Tagore Cardiology Research Center doc_profile = Zara Ali Sr. Surgeon RN Tagore Cardiology Research Center
You can combine strings horizontally in either of the following ways −

Using the MATLAB concatenation operator, [] and separating the input strings with a comma or a space. This method preserves any trailing spaces in the input arrays.

Using the string concatenation function, strcat. This method removes trailing spaces in the inputs.
Example
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
name = ''Zara Ali position = ''Sr. Surgeon worksAt = ''R N Tagore Cardiology Research Center profile = [name '', '' position '', '' worksAt] profile = strcat(name, '', '', position, '', '', worksAt)
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
profile = Zara Ali , Sr. Surgeon , R N Tagore Cardiology Research Center profile = Zara Ali,Sr. Surgeon,R N Tagore Cardiology Research Center
Combining Strings into a Cell Array
From our previous discussion, it is clear that combining strings with different lengths could be a pain as all strings in the array has to be of the same length. We have used blank spaces at the end of strings to equalize their length.
However, a more efficient way to combine the strings is to convert the resulting array into a cell array.
MATLAB cell array can hold different sizes and types of data in an array. Cell arrays provide a more flexible way to store strings of varying length.
The cellstr function converts a character array into a cell array of strings.
Example
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
name = ''Zara Ali position = ''Sr. Surgeon worksAt = ''R N Tagore Cardiology Research Center profile = char(name, position, worksAt); profile = cellstr(profile); disp(profile)
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
{ [1,1] = Zara Ali [2,1] = Sr. Surgeon [3,1] = R N Tagore Cardiology Research Center }
String Functions in MATLAB
MATLAB provides numerous string functions creating, combining, parsing, comparing and manipulating strings.
Following table provides brief description of the string functions in MATLAB −
Function  Purpose 

Functions for storing text in character arrays, combine character arrays, etc.  
blanks  Create string of blank characters 
cellstr  Create cell array of strings from character array 
char  Convert to character array (string) 
iscellstr  Determine whether input is cell array of strings 
ischar  Determine whether item is character array 
sprintf  Format data into string 
strcat  Concatenate strings horizontally 
strjoin  Join strings in cell array into single string 
Functions for identifying parts of strings, find and replace substrings  
ischar  Determine whether item is character array 
isletter  Array elements that are alphabetic letters 
isspace  Array elements that are space characters 
isstrprop  Determine whether string is of specified category 
sscanf  Read formatted data from string 
strfind  Find one string within another 
strrep  Find and replace substring 
strsplit  Split string at specified delimiter 
strtok  Selected parts of string 
validatestring  Check validity of text string 
symvar  Determine symbolic variables in expression 
regexp  Match regular expression (case sensitive) 
regexpi  Match regular expression (case insensitive) 
regexprep  Replace string using regular expression 
regexptranslate  Translate string into regular expression 
Functions for string comparison  
strcmp  Compare strings (case sensitive) 
strcmpi  Compare strings (case insensitive) 
strncmp  Compare first n characters of strings (case sensitive) 
strncmpi  Compare first n characters of strings (case insensitive) 
Functions for changing string to upper or lowercase, creating or removing white space  
deblank  Strip trailing blanks from end of string 
strtrim  Remove leading and trailing white space from string 
lower  Convert string to lowercase 
upper  Convert string to uppercase 
strjust  Justify character array 
Examples
The following examples illustrate some of the abovementioned string functions −
Formatting Strings
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
A = pi*1000*ones(1,5); sprintf('' %f n %.2f n %+.2f n %12.2f n %012.2f n'', A)
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
ans = 3141.592654 3141.59 +3141.59 3141.59 000003141.59
Joining Strings
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
%cell array of strings str_array = {''red'',''blue'',''green'', ''yellow'', ''orange''}; % Join strings in cell array into single string str1 = strjoin(str_array, "") str2 = strjoin(str_array, ",")
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
str1 = redbluegreenyelloworange str2 = red,blue,green,yellow,orange
Finding and Replacing Strings
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
students = {''Zara Ali'', ''Neha Bhatnagar'', ... ''Monica Malik'', ''Madhu Gautam'', ... ''Madhu Sharma'', ''Bhawna Sharma'',... ''Nuha Ali'', ''Reva Dutta'', ... ''Sunaina Ali'', ''Sofia Kabir''}; % The strrep function searches and replaces substring. new_student = strrep(students(8), ''Reva'', ''Poulomi'') % Display first names first_names = strtok(students)
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
new_student = { [1,1] = Poulomi Dutta } first_names = { [1,1] = Zara [1,2] = Neha [1,3] = Monica [1,4] = Madhu [1,5] = Madhu [1,6] = Bhawna [1,7] = Nuha [1,8] = Reva [1,9] = Sunaina [1,10] = Sofia }
Comparing Strings
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
str1 = ''This is test'' str2 = ''This is text'' if (strcmp(str1, str2)) sprintf(''%s and %s are equal'', str1, str2) else sprintf(''%s and %s are not equal'', str1, str2) end
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
str1 = This is test str2 = This is text ans = This is test and This is text are not equal
MATLAB – Functions
A function is a group of statements that together perform a task. In MATLAB, functions are defined in separate files. The name of the file and of the function should be the same.
Functions operate on variables within their own workspace, which is also called the local workspace, separate from the workspace you access at the MATLAB command prompt which is called the base workspace.
Functions can accept more than one input arguments and may return more than one output arguments.
Syntax of a function statement is −
function [out1,out2, ..., outN] = myfun(in1,in2,in3, ..., inN)
Example
The following function named mymax should be written in a file named mymax.m. It takes five numbers as argument and returns the maximum of the numbers.
Create a function file, named mymax.m and type the following code in it −
function max = mymax(n1, n2, n3, n4, n5) %This function calculates the maximum of the % five numbers given as input max = n1; if(n2 > max) max = n2; end if(n3 > max) max = n3; end if(n4 > max) max = n4; end if(n5 > max) max = n5; end
The first line of a function starts with the keyword function. It gives the name of the function and order of arguments. In our example, the mymax function has five input arguments and one output argument.
The comment lines that come right after the function statement provide the help text. These lines are printed when you type −
help mymax
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
This function calculates the maximum of the five numbers given as input
You can call the function as −
mymax(34, 78, 89, 23, 11)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 89
Anonymous Functions
An anonymous function is like an inline function in traditional programming languages, defined within a single MATLAB statement. It consists of a single MATLAB expression and any number of input and output arguments.
You can define an anonymous function right at the MATLAB command line or within a function or script.
This way you can create simple functions without having to create a file for them.
The syntax for creating an anonymous function from an expression is
f = @(arglist)expression
Example
In this example, we will write an anonymous function named power, which will take two numbers as input and return first number raised to the power of the second number.
Create a script file and type the following code in it −
power = @(x, n) x.^n; result1 = power(7, 3) result2 = power(49, 0.5) result3 = power(10, 10) result4 = power (4.5, 1.5)
When you run the file, it displays −
result1 = 343 result2 = 7 result3 = 1.0000e10 result4 = 9.5459
Primary and SubFunctions
Any function other than an anonymous function must be defined within a file. Each function file contains a required primary function that appears first and any number of optional subfunctions that comes after the primary function and used by it.
Primary functions can be called from outside of the file that defines them, either from command line or from other functions, but subfunctions cannot be called from command line or other functions, outside the function file.
Subfunctions are visible only to the primary function and other subfunctions within the function file that defines them.
Example
Let us write a function named quadratic that would calculate the roots of a quadratic equation. The function would take three inputs, the quadratic coefficient, the linear coefficient and the constant term. It would return the roots.
The function file quadratic.m will contain the primary function quadratic and the subfunction disc, which calculates the discriminant.
Create a function file quadratic.m and type the following code in it −
function [x1,x2] = quadratic(a,b,c) %this function returns the roots of % a quadratic equation. % It takes 3 input arguments % which are the coefficients of x2, x and the %constant term % It returns the roots d = disc(a,b,c); x1 = (b + d) / (2*a); x2 = (b  d) / (2*a); end % end of quadratic function dis = disc(a,b,c) %function calculates the discriminant dis = sqrt(b^2  4*a*c); end % end of subfunction
You can call the above function from command prompt as −
quadratic(2,4,4)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 0.7321
Nested Functions
You can define functions within the body of another function. These are called nested functions. A nested function contains any or all of the components of any other function.
Nested functions are defined within the scope of another function and they share access to the containing function”s workspace.
A nested function follows the following syntax −
function x = A(p1, p2) ... B(p2) function y = B(p3) ... end ... end
Example
Let us rewrite the function quadratic, from previous example, however, this time the disc function will be a nested function.
Create a function file quadratic2.m and type the following code in it −
function [x1,x2] = quadratic2(a,b,c) function disc % nested function d = sqrt(b^2  4*a*c); end % end of function disc disc; x1 = (b + d) / (2*a); x2 = (b  d) / (2*a); end % end of function quadratic2
You can call the above function from command prompt as −
quadratic2(2,4,4)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 0.73205
Private Functions
A private function is a primary function that is visible only to a limited group of other functions. If you do not want to expose the implementation of a function(s), you can create them as private functions.
Private functions reside in subfolders with the special name private.
They are visible only to functions in the parent folder.
Example
Let us rewrite the quadratic function. This time, however, the disc function calculating the discriminant, will be a private function.
Create a subfolder named private in working directory. Store the following function file disc.m in it −
function dis = disc(a,b,c) %function calculates the discriminant dis = sqrt(b^2  4*a*c); end % end of subfunction
Create a function quadratic3.m in your working directory and type the following code in it −
function [x1,x2] = quadratic3(a,b,c) %this function returns the roots of % a quadratic equation. % It takes 3 input arguments % which are the coefficient of x2, x and the %constant term % It returns the roots d = disc(a,b,c); x1 = (b + d) / (2*a); x2 = (b  d) / (2*a); end % end of quadratic3
You can call the above function from command prompt as −
quadratic3(2,4,4)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 0.73205
Global Variables
Global variables can be shared by more than one function. For this, you need to declare the variable as global in all the functions.
If you want to access that variable from the base workspace, then declare the variable at the command line.
The global declaration must occur before the variable is actually used in a function. It is a good practice to use capital letters for the names of global variables to distinguish them from other variables.
Example
Let us create a function file named average.m and type the following code in it −
function avg = average(nums) global TOTAL avg = sum(nums)/TOTAL; end
Create a script file and type the following code in it −
global TOTAL; TOTAL = 10; n = [34, 45, 25, 45, 33, 19, 40, 34, 38, 42]; av = average(n)
When you run the file, it will display the following result −
av = 35.500
MATLAB – Data Import
Importing data in MATLAB means loading data from an external file. The importdata function allows loading various data files of different formats. It has the following five forms −
Sr.No.  Function & Description 

1 
A = importdata(filename) Loads data into array A from the file denoted by filename. 
2 
A = importdata(”pastespecial”) Loads data from the system clipboard rather than from a file. 
3 
A = importdata(___, delimiterIn) Interprets delimiterIn as the column separator in ASCII file, filename, or the clipboard data. You can use delimiterIn with any of the input arguments in the above syntaxes. 
4 
A = importdata(___, delimiterIn, headerlinesIn) Loads data from ASCII file, filename, or the clipboard, reading numeric data starting from line headerlinesIn+1. 
5 
[A, delimiterOut, headerlinesOut] = importdata(___) Returns the detected delimiter character for the input ASCII file in delimiterOut and the detected number of header lines in headerlinesOut, using any of the input arguments in the previous syntaxes. 
By default, Octave does not have support for importdata() function, so you will have to search and install this package to make following examples work with your Octave installation.
Example 1
Let us load and display an image file. Create a script file and type the following code in it −
filename = ''smile.jpg A = importdata(filename); image(A);
When you run the file, MATLAB displays the image file. However, you must store it in the current directory.
Example 2
In this example, we import a text file and specify Delimiter and Column Header. Let us create a spacedelimited ASCII file with column headers, named weeklydata.txt.
Our text file weeklydata.txt looks like this −
SunDay MonDay TuesDay WednesDay ThursDay FriDay SaturDay 95.01 76.21 61.54 40.57 55.79 70.28 81.53 73.11 45.65 79.19 93.55 75.29 69.87 74.68 60.68 41.85 92.18 91.69 81.32 90.38 74.51 48.60 82.14 73.82 41.03 0.99 67.22 93.18 89.13 44.47 57.63 89.36 13.89 19.88 46.60
Create a script file and type the following code in it −
filename = ''weeklydata.txt delimiterIn = '' headerlinesIn = 1; A = importdata(filename,delimiterIn,headerlinesIn); % View data for k = [1:7] disp(A.colheaders{1, k}) disp(A.data(:, k)) disp('' '') end
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
SunDay 95.0100 73.1100 60.6800 48.6000 89.1300 MonDay 76.2100 45.6500 41.8500 82.1400 44.4700 TuesDay 61.5400 79.1900 92.1800 73.8200 57.6300 WednesDay 40.5700 93.5500 91.6900 41.0300 89.3600 ThursDay 55.7900 75.2900 81.3200 0.9900 13.8900 FriDay 70.2800 69.8700 90.3800 67.2200 19.8800 SaturDay 81.5300 74.6800 74.5100 93.1800 46.6000
Example 3
In this example, let us import data from clipboard.
Copy the following lines to the clipboard −
Mathematics is simple
Create a script file and type the following code −
A = importdata(''pastespecial'')
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
A = ''Mathematics is simple''
LowLevel File I/O
The importdata function is a highlevel function. The lowlevel file I/O functions in MATLAB allow the most control over reading or writing data to a file. However, these functions need more detailed information about your file to work efficiently.
MATLAB provides the following functions for read and write operations at the byte or character level −
Function  Description 

fclose  Close one or all open files 
feof  Test for endoffile 
ferror  Information about file I/O errors 
fgetl  Read line from file, removing newline characters 
fgets  Read line from file, keeping newline characters 
fopen  Open file, or obtain information about open files 
fprintf  Write data to text file 
fread  Read data from binary file 
frewind  Move file position indicator to beginning of open file 
fscanf  Read data from text file 
fseek  Move to specified position in file 
ftell  Position in open file 
fwrite  Write data to binary file 
Import Text Data Files with LowLevel I/O
MATLAB provides the following functions for lowlevel import of text data files −

The fscanf function reads formatted data in a text or ASCII file.

The fgetl and fgets functions read one line of a file at a time, where a newline character separates each line.

The fread function reads a stream of data at the byte or bit level.
Example
We have a text data file ”myfile.txt” saved in our working directory. The file stores rainfall data for three months; June, July and August for the year 2012.
The data in myfile.txt contains repeated sets of time, month and rainfall measurements at five places. The header data stores the number of months M; so we have M sets of measurements.
The file looks like this −
Rainfall Data Months: June, July, August M = 3 12:00:00 June2012 17.21 28.52 39.78 16.55 23.67 19.15 0.35 17.57 NaN 12.01 17.92 28.49 17.40 17.06 11.09 9.59 9.33 NaN 0.31 0.23 10.46 13.17 NaN 14.89 19.33 20.97 19.50 17.65 14.45 14.00 18.23 10.34 17.95 16.46 19.34 09:10:02 July2012 12.76 16.94 14.38 11.86 16.89 20.46 23.17 NaN 24.89 19.33 30.97 49.50 47.65 24.45 34.00 18.23 30.34 27.95 16.46 19.34 30.46 33.17 NaN 34.89 29.33 30.97 49.50 47.65 24.45 34.00 28.67 30.34 27.95 36.46 29.34 15:03:40 August2012 17.09 16.55 19.59 17.25 19.22 17.54 11.45 13.48 22.55 24.01 NaN 21.19 25.85 25.05 27.21 26.79 24.98 12.23 16.99 18.67 17.54 11.45 13.48 22.55 24.01 NaN 21.19 25.85 25.05 27.21 26.79 24.98 12.23 16.99 18.67
We will import data from this file and display this data. Take the following steps −

Open the file with fopen function and get the file identifier.

Describe the data in the file with format specifiers, such as ”%s” for a string, ”%d” for an integer, or ”%f” for a floatingpoint number.

To skip literal characters in the file, include them in the format description. To skip a data field, use an asterisk (”*”) in the specifier.
For example, to read the headers and return the single value for M, we write −
M = fscanf(fid, ''%*s %*sn%*s %*s %*s %*snM=%dnn'', 1);

By default, fscanf reads data according to our format description until it does not find any match for the data, or it reaches the end of the file. Here we will use for loop for reading 3 sets of data and each time, it will read 7 rows and 5 columns.

We will create a structure named mydata in the workspace to store data read from the file. This structure has three fields – time, month, and raindata array.
Create a script file and type the following code in it −
filename = ''/data/myfile.txt rows = 7; cols = 5; % open the file fid = fopen(filename); % read the file headers, find M (number of months) M = fscanf(fid, ''%*s %*sn%*s %*s %*s %*snM=%dnn'', 1); % read each set of measurements for n = 1:M mydata(n).time = fscanf(fid, ''%s'', 1); mydata(n).month = fscanf(fid, ''%s'', 1); % fscanf fills the array in column order, % so transpose the results mydata(n).raindata = ... fscanf(fid, ''%f'', [rows, cols]); end for n = 1:M disp(mydata(n).time), disp(mydata(n).month) disp(mydata(n).raindata) end % close the file fclose(fid);
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
12:00:00 June2012 17.2100 17.5700 11.0900 13.1700 14.4500 28.5200 NaN 9.5900 NaN 14.0000 39.7800 12.0100 9.3300 14.8900 18.2300 16.5500 17.9200 NaN 19.3300 10.3400 23.6700 28.4900 0.3100 20.9700 17.9500 19.1500 17.4000 0.2300 19.5000 16.4600 0.3500 17.0600 10.4600 17.6500 19.3400 09:10:02 July2012 12.7600 NaN 34.0000 33.1700 24.4500 16.9400 24.8900 18.2300 NaN 34.0000 14.3800 19.3300 30.3400 34.8900 28.6700 11.8600 30.9700 27.9500 29.3300 30.3400 16.8900 49.5000 16.4600 30.9700 27.9500 20.4600 47.6500 19.3400 49.5000 36.4600 23.1700 24.4500 30.4600 47.6500 29.3400 15:03:40 August2012 17.0900 13.4800 27.2100 11.4500 25.0500 16.5500 22.5500 26.7900 13.4800 27.2100 19.5900 24.0100 24.9800 22.5500 26.7900 17.2500 NaN 12.2300 24.0100 24.9800 19.2200 21.1900 16.9900 NaN 12.2300 17.5400 25.8500 18.6700 21.1900 16.9900 11.4500 25.0500 17.5400 25.8500 18.6700
MATLAB – Data Output
Data export (or output) in MATLAB means to write into files. MATLAB allows you to use your data in another application that reads ASCII files. For this, MATLAB provides several data export options.
You can create the following type of files −

Rectangular, delimited ASCII data file from an array.

Diary (or log) file of keystrokes and the resulting text output.

Specialized ASCII file using lowlevel functions such as fprintf.

MEXfile to access your C/C++ or Fortran routine that writes to a particular text file format.
Apart from this, you can also export data to spreadsheets.
There are two ways to export a numeric array as a delimited ASCII data file −

Using the save function and specifying the ascii qualifier

Using the dlmwrite function
Syntax for using the save function is −
save my_data.out num_array ascii
where, my_data.out is the delimited ASCII data file created, num_array is a numeric array and −ascii is the specifier.
Syntax for using the dlmwrite function is −
dlmwrite(''my_data.out'', num_array, ''dlm_char'')
where, my_data.out is the delimited ASCII data file created, num_array is a numeric array and dlm_char is the delimiter character.
Example
The following example demonstrates the concept. Create a script file and type the following code −
num_array = [ 1 2 3 4 ; 4 5 6 7; 7 8 9 0]; save array_data1.out num_array ascii; type array_data1.out dlmwrite(''array_data2.out'', num_array, '' ''); type array_data2.out
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
1.0000000e+00 2.0000000e+00 3.0000000e+00 4.0000000e+00 4.0000000e+00 5.0000000e+00 6.0000000e+00 7.0000000e+00 7.0000000e+00 8.0000000e+00 9.0000000e+00 0.0000000e+00 1 2 3 4 4 5 6 7 7 8 9 0
Please note that the save ascii command and the dlmwrite function does not work with cell arrays as input. To create a delimited ASCII file from the contents of a cell array, you can

Either, convert the cell array to a matrix using the cell2mat function

Or export the cell array using lowlevel file I/O functions.
If you use the save function to write a character array to an ASCII file, it writes the ASCII equivalent of the characters to the file.
For example, let us write the word ”hello” to a file −
h = ''hello save textdata.out h ascii type textdata.out
MATLAB executes the above statements and displays the following result. which is the characters of the string ”hello” in 8digit ASCII format.
1.0400000e+02 1.0100000e+02 1.0800000e+02 1.0800000e+02 1.1100000e+02
Writing to Diary Files
Diary files are activity logs of your MATLAB session. The diary function creates an exact copy of your session in a disk file, excluding graphics.
To turn on the diary function, type −
diary
Optionally, you can give the name of the log file, say −
diary logdata.out
To turn off the diary function −
diary off
You can open the diary file in a text editor.
Exporting Data to Text Data Files with LowLevel I/O
So far, we have exported numeric arrays. However, you may need to create other text files, including combinations of numeric and character data, nonrectangular output files, or files with nonASCII encoding schemes. For these purposes, MATLAB provides the lowlevel fprintf function.
As in lowlevel I/O file activities, before exporting, you need to open or create a file with the fopen function and get the file identifier. By default, fopen opens a file for readonly access. You should specify the permission to write or append, such as ”w” or ”a”.
After processing the file, you need to close it with fclose(fid) function.
The following example demonstrates the concept −
Example
Create a script file and type the following code in it −
% create a matrix y, with two rows x = 0:10:100; y = [x; log(x)]; % open a file for writing fid = fopen(''logtable.txt'', ''w''); % Table Header fprintf(fid, ''Log Functionnn''); % print values in column order % two values appear on each row of the file fprintf(fid, ''%f %fn'', y); fclose(fid); % display the file created type logtable.txt
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
Log Function 0.000000 Inf 10.000000 2.302585 20.000000 2.995732 30.000000 3.401197 40.000000 3.688879 50.000000 3.912023 60.000000 4.094345 70.000000 4.248495 80.000000 4.382027 90.000000 4.499810 100.000000 4.605170
MATLAB – Plotting
To plot the graph of a function, you need to take the following steps −

Define x, by specifying the range of values for the variable x, for which the function is to be plotted

Define the function, y = f(x)

Call the plot command, as plot(x, y)
Following example would demonstrate the concept. Let us plot the simple function y = x for the range of values for x from 0 to 100, with an increment of 5.
Create a script file and type the following code −
x = [0:5:100]; y = x; plot(x, y)
When you run the file, MATLAB displays the following plot −
Let us take one more example to plot the function y = x^{2}. In this example, we will draw two graphs with the same function, but in second time, we will reduce the value of increment. Please note that as we decrease the increment, the graph becomes smoother.
Create a script file and type the following code −
x = [1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10]; x = [100:20:100]; y = x.^2; plot(x, y)
When you run the file, MATLAB displays the following plot −
Change the code file a little, reduce the increment to 5 −
x = [100:5:100]; y = x.^2; plot(x, y)
MATLAB draws a smoother graph −
Adding Title, Labels, Grid Lines and Scaling on the Graph
MATLAB allows you to add title, labels along the xaxis and yaxis, grid lines and also to adjust the axes to spruce up the graph.

The xlabel and ylabel commands generate labels along xaxis and yaxis.

The title command allows you to put a title on the graph.

The grid on command allows you to put the grid lines on the graph.

The axis equal command allows generating the plot with the same scale factors and the spaces on both axes.

The axis square command generates a square plot.
Example
Create a script file and type the following code −
x = [0:0.01:10]; y = sin(x); plot(x, y), xlabel(''x''), ylabel(''Sin(x)''), title(''Sin(x) Graph''), grid on, axis equal
MATLAB generates the following graph −
Drawing Multiple Functions on the Same Graph
You can draw multiple graphs on the same plot. The following example demonstrates the concept −
Example
Create a script file and type the following code −
x = [0 : 0.01: 10]; y = sin(x); g = cos(x); plot(x, y, x, g, ''.''), legend(''Sin(x)'', ''Cos(x)'')
MATLAB generates the following graph −
Setting Colors on Graph
MATLAB provides eight basic color options for drawing graphs. The following table shows the colors and their codes −
Code  Color 

w  White 
k  Black 
b  Blue 
r  Red 
c  Cyan 
g  Green 
m  Magenta 
y  Yellow 
Example
Let us draw the graph of two polynomials

f(x) = 3x^{4} + 2x^{3}+ 7x^{2} + 2x + 9 and

g(x) = 5x^{3} + 9x + 2
Create a script file and type the following code −
x = [10 : 0.01: 10]; y = 3*x.^4 + 2 * x.^3 + 7 * x.^2 + 2 * x + 9; g = 5 * x.^3 + 9 * x + 2; plot(x, y, ''r'', x, g, ''g'')
When you run the file, MATLAB generates the following graph −
Setting Axis Scales
The axis command allows you to set the axis scales. You can provide minimum and maximum values for x and y axes using the axis command in the following way −
axis ( [xmin xmax ymin ymax] )
The following example shows this −
Example
Create a script file and type the following code −
x = [0 : 0.01: 10]; y = exp(x).* sin(2*x + 3); plot(x, y), axis([0 10 1 1])
When you run the file, MATLAB generates the following graph −
Generating SubPlots
When you create an array of plots in the same figure, each of these plots is called a subplot. The subplot command is used for creating subplots.
Syntax for the command is −
subplot(m, n, p)
where, m and n are the number of rows and columns of the plot array and p specifies where to put a particular plot.
Each plot created with the subplot command can have its own characteristics. Following example demonstrates the concept −
Example
Let us generate two plots −
y = e^{−1.5x}sin(10x)
y = e^{−2x}sin(10x)
Create a script file and type the following code −
x = [0:0.01:5]; y = exp(1.5*x).*sin(10*x); subplot(1,2,1) plot(x,y), xlabel(''x''),ylabel(''exp(–1.5x)*sin(10x)''),axis([0 5 1 1]) y = exp(2*x).*sin(10*x); subplot(1,2,2) plot(x,y),xlabel(''x''),ylabel(''exp(–2x)*sin(10x)''),axis([0 5 1 1])
When you run the file, MATLAB generates the following graph −
MATLAB – Graphics
This chapter will continue exploring the plotting and graphics capabilities of MATLAB. We will discuss −
 Drawing bar charts
 Drawing contours
 Three dimensional plots
Drawing Bar Charts
The bar command draws a two dimensional bar chart. Let us take up an example to demonstrate the idea.
Example
Let us have an imaginary classroom with 10 students. We know the percent of marks obtained by these students are 75, 58, 90, 87, 50, 85, 92, 75, 60 and 95. We will draw the bar chart for this data.
Create a script file and type the following code −
x = [1:10]; y = [75, 58, 90, 87, 50, 85, 92, 75, 60, 95]; bar(x,y), xlabel(''Student''),ylabel(''Score''), title(''First Sem:'') print deps graph.eps
When you run the file, MATLAB displays the following bar chart −
Drawing Contours
A contour line of a function of two variables is a curve along which the function has a constant value. Contour lines are used for creating contour maps by joining points of equal elevation above a given level, such as mean sea level.
MATLAB provides a contour function for drawing contour maps.
Example
Let us generate a contour map that shows the contour lines for a given function g = f(x, y). This function has two variables. So, we will have to generate two independent variables, i.e., two data sets x and y. This is done by calling the meshgrid command.
The meshgrid command is used for generating a matrix of elements that give the range over x and y along with the specification of increment in each case.
Let us plot our function g = f(x, y), where −5 ≤ x ≤ 5, −3 ≤ y ≤ 3. Let us take an increment of 0.1 for both the values. The variables are set as −
[x,y] = meshgrid(–5:0.1:5, –3:0.1:3);
Lastly, we need to assign the function. Let our function be: x^{2} + y^{2}
Create a script file and type the following code −
[x,y] = meshgrid(5:0.1:5,3:0.1:3); %independent variables g = x.^2 + y.^2; % our function contour(x,y,g) % call the contour function print deps graph.eps
When you run the file, MATLAB displays the following contour map −
Let us modify the code a little to spruce up the map
[x,y] = meshgrid(5:0.1:5,3:0.1:3); %independent variables g = x.^2 + y.^2; % our function [C, h] = contour(x,y,g); % call the contour function set(h,''ShowText'',''on'',''TextStep'',get(h,''LevelStep'')*2) print deps graph.eps
When you run the file, MATLAB displays the following contour map −
Three Dimensional Plots
Threedimensional plots basically display a surface defined by a function in two variables, g = f (x,y).
As before, to define g, we first create a set of (x,y) points over the domain of the function using the meshgrid command. Next, we assign the function itself. Finally, we use the surf command to create a surface plot.
The following example demonstrates the concept −
Example
Let us create a 3D surface map for the function g = xe^{(x2 + y2)}
Create a script file and type the following code −
[x,y] = meshgrid(2:.2:2); g = x .* exp(x.^2  y.^2); surf(x, y, g) print deps graph.eps
When you run the file, MATLAB displays the following 3D map −
You can also use the mesh command to generate a threedimensional surface. However, the surf command displays both the connecting lines and the faces of the surface in color, whereas, the mesh command creates a wireframe surface with colored lines connecting the defining points.
MATLAB – Algebra
So far, we have seen that all the examples work in MATLAB as well as its GNU, alternatively called Octave. But for solving basic algebraic equations, both MATLAB and Octave are little different, so we will try to cover MATLAB and Octave in separate sections.
We will also discuss factorizing and simplification of algebraic expressions.
Solving Basic Algebraic Equations in MATLAB
The solve function is used for solving algebraic equations. In its simplest form, the solve function takes the equation enclosed in quotes as an argument.
For example, let us solve for x in the equation x5 = 0
solve(''x5=0'')
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 5
You can also call the solve function as −
y = solve(''x5 = 0'')
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
y = 5
You may even not include the right hand side of the equation −
solve(''x5'')
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 5
If the equation involves multiple symbols, then MATLAB by default assumes that you are solving for x, however, the solve function has another form −
solve(equation, variable)
where, you can also mention the variable.
For example, let us solve the equation v – u – 3t^{2} = 0, for v. In this case, we should write −
solve(''vu3*t^2=0'', ''v'')
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 3*t^2 + u
Solving Basic Algebraic Equations in Octave
The roots function is used for solving algebraic equations in Octave and you can write above examples as follows −
For example, let us solve for x in the equation x5 = 0
roots([1, 5])
Octave will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 5
You can also call the solve function as −
y = roots([1, 5])
Octave will execute the above statement and return the following result −
y = 5
Solving Quadratic Equations in MATLAB
The solve function can also solve higher order equations. It is often used to solve quadratic equations. The function returns the roots of the equation in an array.
The following example solves the quadratic equation x^{2} 7x +12 = 0. Create a script file and type the following code −
eq = ''x^2 7*x + 12 = 0 s = solve(eq); disp(''The first root is: ''), disp(s(1)); disp(''The second root is: ''), disp(s(2));
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
The first root is: 3 The second root is: 4
Solving Quadratic Equations in Octave
The following example solves the quadratic equation x^{2} 7x +12 = 0 in Octave. Create a script file and type the following code −
s = roots([1, 7, 12]); disp(''The first root is: ''), disp(s(1)); disp(''The second root is: ''), disp(s(2));
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
The first root is: 4 The second root is: 3
Solving Higher Order Equations in MATLAB
The solve function can also solve higher order equations. For example, let us solve a cubic equation as (x3)^{2}(x7) = 0
solve(''(x3)^2*(x7)=0'')
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 3 3 7
In case of higher order equations, roots are long containing many terms. You can get the numerical value of such roots by converting them to double. The following example solves the fourth order equation x^{4} − 7x^{3} + 3x^{2} − 5x + 9 = 0.
Create a script file and type the following code −
eq = ''x^4  7*x^3 + 3*x^2  5*x + 9 = 0 s = solve(eq); disp(''The first root is: ''), disp(s(1)); disp(''The second root is: ''), disp(s(2)); disp(''The third root is: ''), disp(s(3)); disp(''The fourth root is: ''), disp(s(4)); % converting the roots to double type disp(''Numeric value of first root''), disp(double(s(1))); disp(''Numeric value of second root''), disp(double(s(2))); disp(''Numeric value of third root''), disp(double(s(3))); disp(''Numeric value of fourth root''), disp(double(s(4)));
When you run the file, it returns the following result −
The first root is: 6.630396332390718431485053218985 The second root is: 1.0597804633025896291682772499885 The third root is:  0.34508839784665403032666523448675  1.0778362954630176596831109269793*i The fourth root is:  0.34508839784665403032666523448675 + 1.0778362954630176596831109269793*i Numeric value of first root 6.6304 Numeric value of second root 1.0598 Numeric value of third root 0.3451  1.0778i Numeric value of fourth root 0.3451 + 1.0778i
Please note that the last two roots are complex numbers.
Solving Higher Order Equations in Octave
The following example solves the fourth order equation x^{4} − 7x^{3} + 3x^{2} − 5x + 9 = 0.
Create a script file and type the following code −
v = [1, 7, 3, 5, 9]; s = roots(v); % converting the roots to double type disp(''Numeric value of first root''), disp(double(s(1))); disp(''Numeric value of second root''), disp(double(s(2))); disp(''Numeric value of third root''), disp(double(s(3))); disp(''Numeric value of fourth root''), disp(double(s(4)));
When you run the file, it returns the following result −
Numeric value of first root 6.6304 Numeric value of second root 0.34509 + 1.07784i Numeric value of third root 0.34509  1.07784i Numeric value of fourth root 1.0598
Solving System of Equations in MATLAB
The solve function can also be used to generate solutions of systems of equations involving more than one variables. Let us take up a simple example to demonstrate this use.
Let us solve the equations −
5x + 9y = 5
3x – 6y = 4
Create a script file and type the following code −
s = solve(''5*x + 9*y = 5'',''3*x  6*y = 4''); s.x s.y
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
ans = 22/19 ans = 5/57
In same way, you can solve larger linear systems. Consider the following set of equations −
x + 3y 2z = 5
3x + 5y + 6z = 7
2x + 4y + 3z = 8
Solving System of Equations in Octave
We have a little different approach to solve a system of ”n” linear equations in ”n” unknowns. Let us take up a simple example to demonstrate this use.
Let us solve the equations −
5x + 9y = 5
3x – 6y = 4
Such a system of linear equations can be written as the single matrix equation Ax = b, where A is the coefficient matrix, b is the column vector containing the righthand side of the linear equations and x is the column vector representing the solution as shown in the below program −
Create a script file and type the following code −
A = [5, 9; 3, 6]; b = [5;4]; A b
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
ans = 1.157895 0.087719
In same way, you can solve larger linear systems as given below −
x + 3y 2z = 5
3x + 5y + 6z = 7
2x + 4y + 3z = 8
Expanding and Collecting Equations in MATLAB
The expand and the collect function expands and collects an equation respectively. The following example demonstrates the concepts −
When you work with many symbolic functions, you should declare that your variables are symbolic.
Create a script file and type the following code −
syms x %symbolic variable x syms y %symbolic variable x % expanding equations expand((x5)*(x+9)) expand((x+2)*(x3)*(x5)*(x+7)) expand(sin(2*x)) expand(cos(x+y)) % collecting equations collect(x^3 *(x7)) collect(x^4*(x3)*(x5))
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
ans = x^2 + 4*x  45 ans = x^4 + x^3  43*x^2 + 23*x + 210 ans = 2*cos(x)*sin(x) ans = cos(x)*cos(y)  sin(x)*sin(y) ans = x^4  7*x^3 ans = x^6  8*x^5 + 15*x^4
Expanding and Collecting Equations in Octave
You need to have symbolic package, which provides expand and the collect function to expand and collect an equation, respectively. The following example demonstrates the concepts −
When you work with many symbolic functions, you should declare that your variables are symbolic but Octave has different approach to define symbolic variables. Notice the use of Sin and Cos, which are also defined in symbolic package.
Create a script file and type the following code −
% first of all load the package, make sure its installed. pkg load symbolic % make symbols module available symbols % define symbolic variables x = sym (''x''); y = sym (''y''); z = sym (''z''); % expanding equations expand((x5)*(x+9)) expand((x+2)*(x3)*(x5)*(x+7)) expand(Sin(2*x)) expand(Cos(x+y)) % collecting equations collect(x^3 *(x7), z) collect(x^4*(x3)*(x5), z)
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
ans = 45.0+x^2+(4.0)*x ans = 210.0+x^4(43.0)*x^2+x^3+(23.0)*x ans = sin((2.0)*x) ans = cos(y+x) ans = x^(3.0)*(7.0+x) ans = (3.0+x)*x^(4.0)*(5.0+x)
Factorization and Simplification of Algebraic Expressions
The factor function factorizes an expression and the simplify function simplifies an expression. The following example demonstrates the concept −
Example
Create a script file and type the following code −
syms x syms y factor(x^3  y^3) factor([x^2y^2,x^3+y^3]) simplify((x^416)/(x^24))
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
ans = (x  y)*(x^2 + x*y + y^2) ans = [ (x  y)*(x + y), (x + y)*(x^2  x*y + y^2)] ans = x^2 + 4
MATLAB – Calculus
MATLAB provides various ways for solving problems of differential and integral calculus, solving differential equations of any degree and calculation of limits. Best of all, you can easily plot the graphs of complex functions and check maxima, minima and other stationery points on a graph by solving the original function, as well as its derivative.
This chapter will deal with problems of calculus. In this chapter, we will discuss precalculus concepts i.e., calculating limits of functions and verifying the properties of limits.
In the next chapter Differential, we will compute derivative of an expression and find the local maxima and minima on a graph. We will also discuss solving differential equations.
Finally, in the Integration chapter, we will discuss integral calculus.
Calculating Limits
MATLAB provides the limit function for calculating limits. In its most basic form, the limit function takes expression as an argument and finds the limit of the expression as the independent variable goes to zero.
For example, let us calculate the limit of a function f(x) = (x^{3} + 5)/(x^{4} + 7), as x tends to zero.
syms x limit((x^3 + 5)/(x^4 + 7))
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 5/7
The limit function falls in the realm of symbolic computing; you need to use the syms function to tell MATLAB which symbolic variables you are using. You can also compute limit of a function, as the variable tends to some number other than zero. To calculate lim _{x>a}(f(x)), we use the limit command with arguments. The first being the expression and the second is the number, that x approaches, here it is a.
For example, let us calculate limit of a function f(x) = (x3)/(x1), as x tends to 1.
limit((x  3)/(x1),1)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = NaN
Let”s take another example,
limit(x^2 + 5, 3)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 14
Calculating Limits using Octave
Following is Octave version of the above example using symbolic package, try to execute and compare the result −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); subs((x^3+5)/(x^4+7),x,0)
Octave will execute the above statement and return the following result −
ans = 0.7142857142857142857
Verification of Basic Properties of Limits
Algebraic Limit Theorem provides some basic properties of limits. These are as follows −
Let us consider two functions −
 f(x) = (3x + 5)/(x – 3)
 g(x) = x^{2} + 1.
Let us calculate the limits of the functions as x tends to 5, of both functions and verify the basic properties of limits using these two functions and MATLAB.
Example
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
syms x f = (3*x + 5)/(x3); g = x^2 + 1; l1 = limit(f, 4) l2 = limit (g, 4) lAdd = limit(f + g, 4) lSub = limit(f  g, 4) lMult = limit(f*g, 4) lDiv = limit (f/g, 4)
When you run the file, it displays −
l1 = 17 l2 = 17 lAdd = 34 lSub = 0 lMult = 289 lDiv = 1
Verification of Basic Properties of Limits using Octave
Following is Octave version of the above example using symbolic package, try to execute and compare the result −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); f = (3*x + 5)/(x3); g = x^2 + 1; l1 = subs(f, x, 4) l2 = subs (g, x, 4) lAdd = subs (f+g, x, 4) lSub = subs (fg, x, 4) lMult = subs (f*g, x, 4) lDiv = subs (f/g, x, 4)
Octave will execute the above statement and return the following result −
l1 = 17.0 l2 = 17.0 lAdd = 34.0 lSub = 0.0 lMult = 289.0 lDiv = 1.0
Left and Right Sided Limits
When a function has a discontinuity for some particular value of the variable, the limit does not exist at that point. In other words, limits of a function f(x) has discontinuity at x = a, when the value of limit, as x approaches x from left side, does not equal the value of the limit as x approaches from right side.
This leads to the concept of lefthanded and righthanded limits. A lefthanded limit is defined as the limit as x > a, from the left, i.e., x approaches a, for values of x < a. A righthanded limit is defined as the limit as x > a, from the right, i.e., x approaches a, for values of x > a. When the lefthanded limit and righthanded limit are not equal, the limit does not exist.
Let us consider a function −
f(x) = (x – 3)/x – 3
We will show that lim_{x>3} f(x) does not exist. MATLAB helps us to establish this fact in two ways −
 By plotting the graph of the function and showing the discontinuity.
 By computing the limits and showing that both are different.
The lefthanded and righthanded limits are computed by passing the character strings ”left” and ”right” to the limit command as the last argument.
Example
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
f = (x  3)/abs(x3); ezplot(f,[1,5]) l = limit(f,x,3,''left'') r = limit(f,x,3,''right'')
When you run the file, MATLAB draws the following plot
After this following output is displayed −
l = 1 r = 1
MATLAB – Differential
MATLAB provides the diff command for computing symbolic derivatives. In its simplest form, you pass the function you want to differentiate to diff command as an argument.
For example, let us compute the derivative of the function f(t) = 3t^{2} + 2t^{2}
Example
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
syms t f = 3*t^2 + 2*t^(2); diff(f)
When the above code is compiled and executed, it produces the following result −
ans = 6*t  4/t^3
Following is Octave equivalent of the above calculation −
pkg load symbolic symbols t = sym("t"); f = 3*t^2 + 2*t^(2); differentiate(f,t)
Octave executes the code and returns the following result −
ans = (4.0)*t^(3.0)+(6.0)*t
Verification of Elementary Rules of Differentiation
Let us briefly state various equations or rules for differentiation of functions and verify these rules. For this purpose, we will write f”(x) for a first order derivative and f”(x) for a second order derivative.
Following are the rules for differentiation −
Rule 1
For any functions f and g and any real numbers a and b are the derivative of the function −
h(x) = af(x) + bg(x) with respect to x is given by −
h”(x) = af”(x) + bg”(x)
Rule 2
The sum and subtraction rules state that if f and g are two functions, f” and g” are their derivatives respectively, then,
(f + g)” = f” + g”
(f – g)” = f” – g”
Rule 3
The product rule states that if f and g are two functions, f” and g” are their derivatives respectively, then,
(f.g)” = f”.g + g”.f
Rule 4
The quotient rule states that if f and g are two functions, f” and g” are their derivatives respectively, then,
(f/g)” = (f”.g – g”.f)/g^{2}
Rule 5
The polynomial or elementary power rule states that, if y = f(x) = x^{n}, then f” = n. x^{(n1)}
A direct outcome of this rule is that the derivative of any constant is zero, i.e., if y = k, any constant, then
f” = 0
Rule 6
The chain rule states that, derivative of the function of a function h(x) = f(g(x)) with respect to x is,
h”(x)= f”(g(x)).g”(x)
Example
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
syms x syms t f = (x + 2)*(x^2 + 3) der1 = diff(f) f = (t^2 + 3)*(sqrt(t) + t^3) der2 = diff(f) f = (x^2  2*x + 1)*(3*x^3  5*x^2 + 2) der3 = diff(f) f = (2*x^2 + 3*x)/(x^3 + 1) der4 = diff(f) f = (x^2 + 1)^17 der5 = diff(f) f = (t^3 + 3* t^2 + 5*t 9)^(6) der6 = diff(f)
When you run the file, MATLAB displays the following result −
f = (x^2 + 3)*(x + 2) der1 = 2*x*(x + 2) + x^2 + 3 f = (t^(1/2) + t^3)*(t^2 + 3) der2 = (t^2 + 3)*(3*t^2 + 1/(2*t^(1/2))) + 2*t*(t^(1/2) + t^3) f = (x^2  2*x + 1)*(3*x^3  5*x^2 + 2) der3 = (2*x  2)*(3*x^3  5*x^2 + 2)  ( 9*x^2 + 10*x)*(x^2  2*x + 1) f = (2*x^2 + 3*x)/(x^3 + 1) der4 = (4*x + 3)/(x^3 + 1)  (3*x^2*(2*x^2 + 3*x))/(x^3 + 1)^2 f = (x^2 + 1)^17 der5 = 34*x*(x^2 + 1)^16 f = 1/(t^3 + 3*t^2 + 5*t  9)^6 der6 = (6*(3*t^2 + 6*t + 5))/(t^3 + 3*t^2 + 5*t  9)^7
Following is Octave equivalent of the above calculation −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); t = sym("t"); f = (x + 2)*(x^2 + 3) der1 = differentiate(f,x) f = (t^2 + 3)*(t^(1/2) + t^3) der2 = differentiate(f,t) f = (x^2  2*x + 1)*(3*x^3  5*x^2 + 2) der3 = differentiate(f,x) f = (2*x^2 + 3*x)/(x^3 + 1) der4 = differentiate(f,x) f = (x^2 + 1)^17 der5 = differentiate(f,x) f = (t^3 + 3* t^2 + 5*t 9)^(6) der6 = differentiate(f,t)
Octave executes the code and returns the following result −
f = (2.0+x)*(3.0+x^(2.0)) der1 = 3.0+x^(2.0)+(2.0)*(2.0+x)*x f = (t^(3.0)+sqrt(t))*(3.0+t^(2.0)) der2 = (2.0)*(t^(3.0)+sqrt(t))*t+((3.0)*t^(2.0)+(0.5)*t^(0.5))*(3.0+t^(2.0)) f = (1.0+x^(2.0)(2.0)*x)*(2.0(5.0)*x^(2.0)+(3.0)*x^(3.0)) der3 = (2.0+(2.0)*x)*(2.0(5.0)*x^(2.0)+(3.0)*x^(3.0))+((9.0)*x^(2.0)(10.0)*x)*(1.0+x^(2.0)(2.0)*x) f = (1.0+x^(3.0))^(1)*((2.0)*x^(2.0)+(3.0)*x) der4 = (1.0+x^(3.0))^(1)*(3.0+(4.0)*x)(3.0)*(1.0+x^(3.0))^(2)*x^(2.0)*((2.0)*x^(2.0)+(3.0)*x) f = (1.0+x^(2.0))^(17.0) der5 = (34.0)*(1.0+x^(2.0))^(16.0)*x f = (9.0+(3.0)*t^(2.0)+t^(3.0)+(5.0)*t)^(6.0) der6 = (6.0)*(9.0+(3.0)*t^(2.0)+t^(3.0)+(5.0)*t)^(7.0)*(5.0+(3.0)*t^(2.0)+(6.0)*t)
Derivatives of Exponential, Logarithmic and Trigonometric Functions
The following table provides the derivatives of commonly used exponential, logarithmic and trigonometric functions −
Function  Derivative 

c^{a.x}  c^{a.x}.ln c.a (ln is natural logarithm) 
e^{x}  e^{x} 
ln x  1/x 
ln_{c}x  1/x.ln c 
x^{x}  x^{x}.(1 + ln x) 
sin(x)  cos(x) 
cos(x)  sin(x) 
tan(x)  sec^{2}(x), or 1/cos^{2}(x), or 1 + tan^{2}(x) 
cot(x)  csc^{2}(x), or 1/sin^{2}(x), or (1 + cot^{2}(x)) 
sec(x)  sec(x).tan(x) 
csc(x)  csc(x).cot(x) 
Example
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
syms x y = exp(x) diff(y) y = x^9 diff(y) y = sin(x) diff(y) y = tan(x) diff(y) y = cos(x) diff(y) y = log(x) diff(y) y = log10(x) diff(y) y = sin(x)^2 diff(y) y = cos(3*x^2 + 2*x + 1) diff(y) y = exp(x)/sin(x) diff(y)
When you run the file, MATLAB displays the following result −
y = exp(x) ans = exp(x) y = x^9 ans = 9*x^8 y = sin(x) ans = cos(x) y = tan(x) ans = tan(x)^2 + 1 y = cos(x) ans = sin(x) y = log(x) ans = 1/x y = log(x)/log(10) ans = 1/(x*log(10)) y = sin(x)^2 ans = 2*cos(x)*sin(x) y = cos(3*x^2 + 2*x + 1) ans = sin(3*x^2 + 2*x + 1)*(6*x + 2) y = exp(x)/sin(x) ans = exp(x)/sin(x)  (exp(x)*cos(x))/sin(x)^2
Following is Octave equivalent of the above calculation −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); y = Exp(x) differentiate(y,x) y = x^9 differentiate(y,x) y = Sin(x) differentiate(y,x) y = Tan(x) differentiate(y,x) y = Cos(x) differentiate(y,x) y = Log(x) differentiate(y,x) % symbolic packages does not have this support %y = Log10(x) %differentiate(y,x) y = Sin(x)^2 differentiate(y,x) y = Cos(3*x^2 + 2*x + 1) differentiate(y,x) y = Exp(x)/Sin(x) differentiate(y,x)
Octave executes the code and returns the following result −
y = exp(x) ans = exp(x) y = x^(9.0) ans = (9.0)*x^(8.0) y = sin(x) ans = cos(x) y = tan(x) ans = 1+tan(x)^2 y = cos(x) ans = sin(x) y = log(x) ans = x^(1) y = sin(x)^(2.0) ans = (2.0)*sin(x)*cos(x) y = cos(1.0+(2.0)*x+(3.0)*x^(2.0)) ans = (2.0+(6.0)*x)*sin(1.0+(2.0)*x+(3.0)*x^(2.0)) y = sin(x)^(1)*exp(x) ans = sin(x)^(1)*exp(x)sin(x)^(2)*cos(x)*exp(x)
Computing Higher Order Derivatives
To compute higher derivatives of a function f, we use the syntax diff(f,n).
Let us compute the second derivative of the function y = f(x) = x .e^{3x}
f = x*exp(3*x); diff(f, 2)
MATLAB executes the code and returns the following result −
ans = 9*x*exp(3*x)  6*exp(3*x)
Following is Octave equivalent of the above calculation −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); f = x*Exp(3*x); differentiate(f, x, 2)
Octave executes the code and returns the following result −
ans = (9.0)*exp((3.0)*x)*x(6.0)*exp((3.0)*x)
Example
In this example, let us solve a problem. Given that a function y = f(x) = 3 sin(x) + 7 cos(5x). We will have to find out whether the equation f” + f = 5cos(2x) holds true.
Create a script file and type the following code into it −
syms x y = 3*sin(x)+7*cos(5*x); % defining the function lhs = diff(y,2)+y; %evaluting the lhs of the equation rhs = 5*cos(2*x); %rhs of the equation if(isequal(lhs,rhs)) disp(''Yes, the equation holds true''); else disp(''No, the equation does not hold true''); end disp(''Value of LHS is: ''), disp(lhs);
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
No, the equation does not hold true Value of LHS is: 168*cos(5*x)
Following is Octave equivalent of the above calculation −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); y = 3*Sin(x)+7*Cos(5*x); % defining the function lhs = differentiate(y, x, 2) + y; %evaluting the lhs of the equation rhs = 5*Cos(2*x); %rhs of the equation if(lhs == rhs) disp(''Yes, the equation holds true''); else disp(''No, the equation does not hold true''); end disp(''Value of LHS is: ''), disp(lhs);
Octave executes the code and returns the following result −
No, the equation does not hold true Value of LHS is: (168.0)*cos((5.0)*x)
Finding the Maxima and Minima of a Curve
If we are searching for the local maxima and minima for a graph, we are basically looking for the highest or lowest points on the graph of the function at a particular locality, or for a particular range of values of the symbolic variable.
For a function y = f(x) the points on the graph where the graph has zero slope are called stationary points. In other words stationary points are where f”(x) = 0.
To find the stationary points of a function we differentiate, we need to set the derivative equal to zero and solve the equation.
Example
Let us find the stationary points of the function f(x) = 2x^{3} + 3x^{2} − 12x + 17
Take the following steps −
First let us enter the function and plot its graph.
syms x y = 2*x^3 + 3*x^2  12*x + 17; % defining the function ezplot(y)
MATLAB executes the code and returns the following plot −
Here is Octave equivalent code for the above example −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym(''x''); y = inline("2*x^3 + 3*x^2  12*x + 17"); ezplot(y) print deps graph.eps
Our aim is to find some local maxima and minima on the graph, so let us find the local maxima and minima for the interval [2, 2] on the graph.
syms x y = 2*x^3 + 3*x^2  12*x + 17; % defining the function ezplot(y, [2, 2])
MATLAB executes the code and returns the following plot −
Here is Octave equivalent code for the above example −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym(''x''); y = inline("2*x^3 + 3*x^2  12*x + 17"); ezplot(y, [2, 2]) print deps graph.eps
Next, let us compute the derivative.
g = diff(y)
MATLAB executes the code and returns the following result −
g = 6*x^2 + 6*x  12
Here is Octave equivalent of the above calculation −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); y = 2*x^3 + 3*x^2  12*x + 17; g = differentiate(y,x)
Octave executes the code and returns the following result −
g = 12.0+(6.0)*x+(6.0)*x^(2.0)
Let us solve the derivative function, g, to get the values where it becomes zero.
s = solve(g)
MATLAB executes the code and returns the following result −
s = 1 2
Following is Octave equivalent of the above calculation −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); y = 2*x^3 + 3*x^2  12*x + 17; g = differentiate(y,x) roots([6, 6, 12])
Octave executes the code and returns the following result −
g = 12.0+(6.0)*x^(2.0)+(6.0)*x ans = 2 1
This agrees with our plot. So let us evaluate the function f at the critical points x = 1, 2. We can substitute a value in a symbolic function by using the subs command.
subs(y, 1), subs(y, 2)
MATLAB executes the code and returns the following result −
ans = 10 ans = 37
Following is Octave equivalent of the above calculation −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); y = 2*x^3 + 3*x^2  12*x + 17; g = differentiate(y,x) roots([6, 6, 12]) subs(y, x, 1), subs(y, x, 2)
ans = 10.0 ans = 37.04.6734207789940138748E18*I
Therefore, The minimum and maximum values on the function f(x) = 2x^{3} + 3x^{2} − 12x + 17, in the interval [2,2] are 10 and 37.
Solving Differential Equations
MATLAB provides the dsolve command for solving differential equations symbolically.
The most basic form of the dsolve command for finding the solution to a single equation is
dsolve(''eqn'')
where eqn is a text string used to enter the equation.
It returns a symbolic solution with a set of arbitrary constants that MATLAB labels C1, C2, and so on.
You can also specify initial and boundary conditions for the problem, as commadelimited list following the equation as −
dsolve(''eqn'',''cond1'', ''cond2'',…)
For the purpose of using dsolve command, derivatives are indicated with a D. For example, an equation like f”(t) = 2*f + cost(t) is entered as −
”Df = 2*f + cos(t)”
Higher derivatives are indicated by following D by the order of the derivative.
For example the equation f”(x) + 2f”(x) = 5sin3x should be entered as −
”D2y + 2Dy = 5*sin(3*x)”
Let us take up a simple example of a first order differential equation: y” = 5y.
s = dsolve(''Dy = 5*y'')
MATLAB executes the code and returns the following result −
s = C2*exp(5*t)
Let us take up another example of a second order differential equation as: y” – y = 0, y(0) = 1, y”(0) = 2.
dsolve(''D2y  y = 0'',''y(0) = 1'',''Dy(0) = 2'')
MATLAB executes the code and returns the following result −
ans = exp(t)/2  (3*exp(t))/2
MATLAB – Integration
Integration deals with two essentially different types of problems.

In the first type, derivative of a function is given and we want to find the function. Therefore, we basically reverse the process of differentiation. This reverse process is known as antidifferentiation, or finding the primitive function, or finding an indefinite integral.

The second type of problems involve adding up a very large number of very small quantities and then taking a limit as the size of the quantities approaches zero, while the number of terms tend to infinity. This process leads to the definition of the definite integral.
Definite integrals are used for finding area, volume, center of gravity, moment of inertia, work done by a force, and in numerous other applications.
Finding Indefinite Integral Using MATLAB
By definition, if the derivative of a function f(x) is f”(x), then we say that an indefinite integral of f”(x) with respect to x is f(x). For example, since the derivative (with respect to x) of x^{2} is 2x, we can say that an indefinite integral of 2x is x^{2}.
In symbols −
f”(x^{2}) = 2x, therefore,
∫ 2xdx = x^{2}.
Indefinite integral is not unique, because derivative of x^{2} + c, for any value of a constant c, will also be 2x.
This is expressed in symbols as −
∫ 2xdx = x^{2} + c.
Where, c is called an ”arbitrary constant”.
MATLAB provides an int command for calculating integral of an expression. To derive an expression for the indefinite integral of a function, we write −
int(f);
For example, from our previous example −
syms x int(2*x)
MATLAB executes the above statement and returns the following result −
ans = x^2
Example 1
In this example, let us find the integral of some commonly used expressions. Create a script file and type the following code in it −
syms x n int(sym(x^n)) f = ''sin(n*t)'' int(sym(f)) syms a t int(a*cos(pi*t)) int(a^x)
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
ans = piecewise([n == 1, log(x)], [n ~= 1, x^(n + 1)/(n + 1)]) f = sin(n*t) ans = cos(n*t)/n ans = (a*sin(pi*t))/pi ans = a^x/log(a)
Example 2
Create a script file and type the following code in it −
syms x n int(cos(x)) int(exp(x)) int(log(x)) int(x^1) int(x^5*cos(5*x)) pretty(int(x^5*cos(5*x))) int(x^5) int(sec(x)^2) pretty(int(1  10*x + 9 * x^2)) int((3 + 5*x 6*x^2  7*x^3)/2*x^2) pretty(int((3 + 5*x 6*x^2  7*x^3)/2*x^2))
Note that the pretty function returns an expression in a more readable format.
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
ans = sin(x) ans = exp(x) ans = x*(log(x)  1) ans = log(x) ans = (24*cos(5*x))/3125 + (24*x*sin(5*x))/625  (12*x^2*cos(5*x))/125 + (x^4*cos(5*x))/5  (4*x^3*sin(5*x))/25 + (x^5*sin(5*x))/5 2 4 24 cos(5 x) 24 x sin(5 x) 12 x cos(5 x) x cos(5 x)  +    +  3125 625 125 5 3 5 4 x sin(5 x) x sin(5 x)  +  25 5 ans = 1/(4*x^4) ans = tan(x) 2 x (3 x  5 x + 1) ans =  (7*x^6)/12  (3*x^5)/5 + (5*x^4)/8 + x^3/2 6 5 4 3 7 x 3 x 5 x x     +  +  12 5 8 2
Finding Definite Integral Using MATLAB
By definition, definite integral is basically the limit of a sum. We use definite integrals to find areas such as the area between a curve and the xaxis and the area between two curves. Definite integrals can also be used in other situations, where the quantity required can be expressed as the limit of a sum.
The int function can be used for definite integration by passing the limits over which you want to calculate the integral.
To calculate
we write,
int(x, a, b)
For example, to calculate the value of we write −
int(x, 4, 9)
MATLAB executes the above statement and returns the following result −
ans = 65/2
Following is Octave equivalent of the above calculation −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); f = x; c = [1, 0]; integral = polyint(c); a = polyval(integral, 9)  polyval(integral, 4); display(''Area: ''), disp(double(a));
Octave executes the code and returns the following result −
Area: 32.500
An alternative solution can be given using quad() function provided by Octave as follows −
pkg load symbolic symbols f = inline("x"); [a, ierror, nfneval] = quad(f, 4, 9); display(''Area: ''), disp(double(a));
Octave executes the code and returns the following result −
Area: 32.500
Example 1
Let us calculate the area enclosed between the xaxis, and the curve y = x^{3}−2x+5 and the ordinates x = 1 and x = 2.
The required area is given by −
Create a script file and type the following code −
f = x^3  2*x +5; a = int(f, 1, 2) display(''Area: ''), disp(double(a));
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
a = 23/4 Area: 5.7500
Following is Octave equivalent of the above calculation −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); f = x^3  2*x +5; c = [1, 0, 2, 5]; integral = polyint(c); a = polyval(integral, 2)  polyval(integral, 1); display(''Area: ''), disp(double(a));
Octave executes the code and returns the following result −
Area: 5.7500
An alternative solution can be given using quad() function provided by Octave as follows −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); f = inline("x^3  2*x +5"); [a, ierror, nfneval] = quad(f, 1, 2); display(''Area: ''), disp(double(a));
Octave executes the code and returns the following result −
Area: 5.7500
Example 2
Find the area under the curve: f(x) = x^{2} cos(x) for −4 ≤ x ≤ 9.
Create a script file and write the following code −
f = x^2*cos(x); ezplot(f, [4,9]) a = int(f, 4, 9) disp(''Area: ''), disp(double(a));
When you run the file, MATLAB plots the graph −
The output is given below −
a = 8*cos(4) + 18*cos(9) + 14*sin(4) + 79*sin(9) Area: 0.3326
Following is Octave equivalent of the above calculation −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); f = inline("x^2*cos(x)"); ezplot(f, [4,9]) print deps graph.eps [a, ierror, nfneval] = quad(f, 4, 9); display(''Area: ''), disp(double(a));
MATLAB – Polynomials
MATLAB represents polynomials as row vectors containing coefficients ordered by descending powers. For example, the equation P(x) = x^{4} + 7x^{3} – 5x + 9 could be represented as −
p = [1 7 0 5 9];
Evaluating Polynomials
The polyval function is used for evaluating a polynomial at a specified value. For example, to evaluate our previous polynomial p, at x = 4, type −
p = [1 7 0 5 9]; polyval(p,4)
MATLAB executes the above statements and returns the following result −
ans = 693
MATLAB also provides the polyvalm function for evaluating a matrix polynomial. A matrix polynomial is a polynomial with matrices as variables.
For example, let us create a square matrix X and evaluate the polynomial p, at X −
p = [1 7 0 5 9]; X = [1 2 3 4; 2 5 6 3; 3 1 0 2; 5 7 3 8]; polyvalm(p, X)
MATLAB executes the above statements and returns the following result −
ans = 2307 1769 939 4499 2314 2376 249 4695 2256 1892 549 4310 4570 4532 1062 9269
Finding the Roots of Polynomials
The roots function calculates the roots of a polynomial. For example, to calculate the roots of our polynomial p, type −
p = [1 7 0 5 9]; r = roots(p)
MATLAB executes the above statements and returns the following result −
r = 6.8661 + 0.0000i 1.4247 + 0.0000i 0.6454 + 0.7095i 0.6454  0.7095i
The function poly is an inverse of the roots function and returns to the polynomial coefficients. For example −
p2 = poly(r)
MATLAB executes the above statements and returns the following result −
p2 = Columns 1 through 3: 1.00000 + 0.00000i 7.00000 + 0.00000i 0.00000 + 0.00000i Columns 4 and 5: 5.00000  0.00000i 9.00000 + 0.00000i
Polynomial Curve Fitting
The polyfit function finds the coefficients of a polynomial that fits a set of data in a leastsquares sense. If x and y are two vectors containing the x and y data to be fitted to a ndegree polynomial, then we get the polynomial fitting the data by writing −
p = polyfit(x,y,n)
Example
Create a script file and type the following code −
x = [1 2 3 4 5 6]; y = [5.5 43.1 128 290.7 498.4 978.67]; %data p = polyfit(x,y,4) %get the polynomial % Compute the values of the polyfit estimate over a finer range, % and plot the estimate over the real data values for comparison: x2 = 1:.1:6; y2 = polyval(p,x2); plot(x,y,''o'',x2,y2) grid on
When you run the file, MATLAB displays the following result −
p = 4.1056 47.9607 222.2598 362.7453 191.1250
And plots the following graph −
MATLAB – Transforms
MATLAB provides command for working with transforms, such as the Laplace and Fourier transforms. Transforms are used in science and engineering as a tool for simplifying analysis and look at data from another angle.
For example, the Fourier transform allows us to convert a signal represented as a function of time to a function of frequency. Laplace transform allows us to convert a differential equation to an algebraic equation.
MATLAB provides the laplace, fourier and fft commands to work with Laplace, Fourier and Fast Fourier transforms.
The Laplace Transform
The Laplace transform of a function of time f(t) is given by the following integral −
Laplace transform is also denoted as transform of f(t) to F(s). You can see this transform or integration process converts f(t), a function of the symbolic variable t, into another function F(s), with another variable s.
Laplace transform turns differential equations into algebraic ones. To compute a Laplace transform of a function f(t), write −
laplace(f(t))
Example
In this example, we will compute the Laplace transform of some commonly used functions.
Create a script file and type the following code −
syms s t a b w laplace(a) laplace(t^2) laplace(t^9) laplace(exp(b*t)) laplace(sin(w*t)) laplace(cos(w*t))
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
ans = 1/s^2 ans = 2/s^3 ans = 362880/s^10 ans = 1/(b + s) ans = w/(s^2 + w^2) ans = s/(s^2 + w^2)
The Inverse Laplace Transform
MATLAB allows us to compute the inverse Laplace transform using the command ilaplace.
For example,
ilaplace(1/s^3)
MATLAB will execute the above statement and display the result −
ans = t^2/2
Example
Create a script file and type the following code −
syms s t a b w ilaplace(1/s^7) ilaplace(2/(w+s)) ilaplace(s/(s^2+4)) ilaplace(exp(b*t)) ilaplace(w/(s^2 + w^2)) ilaplace(s/(s^2 + w^2))
When you run the file, it displays the following result −
ans = t^6/720 ans = 2*exp(t*w) ans = cos(2*t) ans = ilaplace(exp(b*t), t, x) ans = sin(t*w) ans = cos(t*w)
The Fourier Transforms
Fourier transforms commonly transforms a mathematical function of time, f(t), into a new function, sometimes denoted by or F, whose argument is frequency with units of cycles/s (hertz) or radians per second. The new function is then known as the Fourier transform and/or the frequency spectrum of the function f.
Example
Create a script file and type the following code in it −
syms x f = exp(2*x^2); %our function ezplot(f,[2,2]) % plot of our function FT = fourier(f) % Fourier transform
When you run the file, MATLAB plots the following graph −
The following result is displayed −
FT = (2^(1/2)*pi^(1/2)*exp(w^2/8))/2
Plotting the Fourier transform as −
ezplot(FT)
Gives the following graph −
Inverse Fourier Transforms
MATLAB provides the ifourier command for computing the inverse Fourier transform of a function. For example,
f = ifourier(2*exp(abs(w)))
MATLAB will execute the above statement and display the result −
f = 2/(pi*(x^2 + 1))
MATLAB – GNU Octave Tutorial
GNU Octave is a highlevel programming language like MATLAB and it is mostly compatible with MATLAB. It is also used for numerical computations.
Octave has the following common features with MATLAB −
 matrices are fundamental data type
 it has builtin support for complex numbers
 it has builtin math functions and libraries
 it supports userdefined functions
GNU Octave is also freely redistributable software. You may redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL) as published by the Free Software Foundation.
MATLAB vs Octave
Most MATLAB programs run in Octave, but some of the Octave programs may not run in MATLAB because, Octave allows some syntax that MATLAB does not.
For example, MATLAB supports single quotes only, but Octave supports both single and double quotes for defining strings. If you are looking for a tutorial on Octave, then kindly go through this tutorial from beginning which covers both MATLAB as well as Octave.
Compatible Examples
Almost all the examples covered in this tutorial are compatible with MATLAB as well as Octave. Let”s try following example in MATLAB and Octave which produces same result without any syntax changes −
This example creates a 3D surface map for the function g = xe^{(x2 + y2)}. Create a script file and type the following code −
[x,y] = meshgrid(2:.2:2); g = x .* exp(x.^2  y.^2); surf(x, y, g) print deps graph.eps
When you run the file, MATLAB displays the following 3D map −
Noncompatible Examples
Though all the core functionality of MATLAB is available in Octave, there are some functionality for example, Differential & Integration Calculus, which does not match exactly in both the languages. This tutorial has tried to give both type of examples where they differed in their syntax.
Consider following example where MATLAB and Octave make use of different functions to get the area of a curve: f(x) = x^{2} cos(x) for −4 ≤ x ≤ 9. Following is MATLAB version of the code −
f = x^2*cos(x); ezplot(f, [4,9]) a = int(f, 4, 9) disp(''Area: ''), disp(double(a));
When you run the file, MATLAB plots the graph −
The following result is displayed
a = 8*cos(4) + 18*cos(9) + 14*sin(4) + 79*sin(9) Area: 0.3326
But to give area of the same curve in Octave, you will have to make use of symbolic package as follows −
pkg load symbolic symbols x = sym("x"); f = inline("x^2*cos(x)"); ezplot(f, [4,9]) print deps graph.eps [a, ierror, nfneval] = quad(f, 4, 9); display(''Area: ''), disp(double(a));
MATLAB – Simulink
Simulink is a simulation and modelbased design environment for dynamic and embedded systems, integrated with MATLAB. Simulink, also developed by MathWorks, is a data flow graphical programming language tool for modelling, simulating and analyzing multidomain dynamic systems. It is basically a graphical block diagramming tool with customizable set of block libraries.
It allows you to incorporate MATLAB algorithms into models as well as export the simulation results into MATLAB for further analysis.
Simulink supports −
 systemlevel design
 simulation
 automatic code generation
 testing and verification of embedded systems
There are several other addon products provided by MathWorks and thirdparty hardware and software products that are available for use with Simulink.
The following list gives brief description of some of them −

Stateflow allows developing state machines and flow charts.

Simulink Coder allows the generation of C source code for realtime implementation of systems automatically.

xPC Target together with x86based realtime systems provide an environment to simulate and test Simulink and Stateflow models in realtime on the physical system.

Embedded Coder supports specific embedded targets.

HDL Coder allows to automatically generate synthesizable VHDL and Verilog.

SimEvents provides a library of graphical building blocks for modelling queuing systems.
Simulink is capable of systematic verification and validation of models through modelling style checking, requirements traceability and model coverage analysis.
Simulink Design Verifier allows you to identify design errors and to generate test case scenarios for model checking.
Using Simulink
To open Simulink, type in the MATLAB work space −
simulink
Simulink opens with the Library Browser. The Library Browser is used for building simulation models.
On the left side window pane, you will find several libraries categorized on the basis of various systems, clicking on each one will display the design blocks on the right window pane.
Building Models
To create a new model, click the New button on the Library Browser”s toolbar. This opens a new untitled model window.
A Simulink model is a block diagram.
Model elements are added by selecting the appropriate elements from the Library Browser and dragging them into the Model window.
Alternately, you can copy the model elements and paste them into the model window.
Examples
Drag and drop items from the Simulink library to make your project.
For the purpose of this example, two blocks will be used for the simulation – A Source (a signal) and a Sink (a scope). A signal generator (the source) generates an analog signal, which will then be graphically visualized by the scope(the sink).
Begin by dragging the required blocks from the library to the project window. Then, connect the blocks together which can be done by dragging connectors from connection points on one block to those of another.
Let us drag a ”Sine Wave” block into the model.
Select ”Sinks” from the library and drag a ”Scope” block into the model.
Drag a signal line from the output of the Sine Wave block to the input of the Scope block.
Run the simulation by pressing the ”Run” button, keeping all parameters default (you can change them from the Simulation menu)
You should get the below graph from the scope.